Memory/Narrative: 1

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 この記事は「記憶/物語」を読んでの英訳になります.

This essay is an English translation of “「記憶/物語」を読んで”.

Event, History, Memory and Narrative

When I was a junior high school student, there was a assembly in the school gym on the hottest day of summer, the holiday was close to came. The assembly was a talk about “The Pacific War”, spoken by a former school girl, the survivor of the Battle of Okinawa, June, 1945.  I personally thought that it was an invaluable talk. I was hugely expecting to listen to her talk, because she had survived the war, also vaguely I was curious about World Modern history. I believe that there must be few students who willingly listened to the talk like me. The reason is that it would be impossible for youngsters to put up with the tales of the old stranger in the sultry school gym. I knew that there were people asleep. But I am not apt to blame on them at all. I was one of the guy who simply listened to the talk for just satisfying own curiosity of the war, although I sympathised the cruelty of the war on the ground. So, I admit that I was a student who was not appropriate for the talk that ought to be, that I have no right to denounce other students who were asleep. It would rather be a majority if I were indifferent with the testimony of the war as a student of junior high school living in the remote city from Okinawa. I wonder that the estrangement from the situation must be extraordinary that present day students wishing to enjoy summer vacation and the former boys and girls seventy-five years ago resign themselves to fate who were given hand grenades which suggest them to suicide against their will in the trench, in the same summer.

I strongly believe that everyone should remember these tragedies had happened in the past, and the opportunities to know the facts must be given through the public place. But, it may be a difficult matter to discuss when to have opportunity, I personally guess that it would be better to let them know in the term of compulsory education. The time flies, the survivors of the war live out their natural life span, so that it would be getting difficult to ask for a testify the memory of tragedy even if we obtained their consent. It has been 75 years since the war was over.

Why the war happened ? I think people who can answer this question are very few. Why the war must not be occurred forever? This question also can be answered by very few number of people, I guess. In our country, the lesson that the war must not be repeated is broadcasted in June, and August. Memorial service for the war is held every year, mourning ceremony is reported in the TV.  The mourning is the work of reminiscence of dead. The process of universal healing for those who involved and died in the war(it is different nuance with ‘worshipping the souls of the war dead’). It is good thing for mass-media to broadcast these events. But what should they report the most is that to listening to the whispers of ‘narratives’ suggested by the behaviour of people praying in June 23rd, August 6th, 9th and 15th, I believe. Why happened the general mobilisation that enforce people to service an absurd event?  I have been questioning myself about this since I was a child. I knew tentatively the logics and a complete history of Japan but I could not learn any more while I was taking the class of social study. I did not expected at any rate, but evening TV news never taught me the answer. The news always dispassionately tells us only truth likely facts. 

“Do not repeat the war, never to happen the tragedy.” 

Okay, okay, I understood. but tell me why you say so.

“Because It is tragic.” I knew it! That is not what I want to know. When I was a kid, I thought like that. Is that a common knowledge for adults? That’s why they won’t tell me.

But later on, I could feel the reason to deny the war by watching overflowing insanity of war, suggested from documentary film, such as “NHK special” at 9 o’clock, and “The 20th century on film(Eizo no Seiki)”, which was collaborated with ABC Television.  Moreover, I found that this “Event” is in truly complicated situation. I also found the difficulty to speak of the reason why we Japanese had began the Pacific War. Then I thought that the sequence of “Memories” would gradually fade out, and the handing down of narratives might not succeed.

The time goes by, I grew up a bit, I had a chance to visit the United Kingdom. The news program on TV that I watched in hotel on September 2nd was the broadcast of “Victory over Japan day”, as the stance of a victorious nation. I rapidly felt uneasiness like a cold breeze in the UK, reminded me of the feeling that I was in the country which used to fight against our country, even now they celebrated the victory over us. Probably It may be the first time for me to touch the shadow of the war. What I knew were fragments memory that my grand-grandfather served in the battlefield of Manchuria, and my grandfather was nearly expelled from school due to lese majesty. Another grandfather wished to enrol as navy officer but he failed in examination for admission. The more change of generation takes place, the less reliability of spoken tales, and they get short, sometimes surprising punch line appears, otherwise the narrative turns into the record which only tells that one went there and there, Even the memories of my true family fades away.

I have began to answer and find the question by reading books of Modern history of Japan written by specialities like Ms. Kato Yoko and so-on.  It is true that some writing of her has the same questioning as me. She tries to make a discussion with high school students on the case as if we were the statesmen of Japan at the era of Pacific war, standing on an equal footing. Of course I have read the book, but it has been a quite long time since I finished it, so that I cannot tell you right now in detail. However, I am sure that the writing was worth reading in that she considers how the Japanese executives made decision in the critical moment of history, and she tries to describe how they felt at that moments as much as possible. 

During my reading, I found that some beings insisting sharp remarks and (it may be all very reasonable for them to)confront the books which were written by highly specialised authors, based on thousands of references and former controversial studies. They speak aloud and we cannot ignore them.  By all means we should listen to what they are saying. Their voices echo regarding negative “events” such as the Nanjing massacre, comfort women, saying “There were no such things.” History revisionism, desertification of memories, letting past be bygones. Various words are rushing through my mind. Although we are sure to have walked one straight line of “History”,   there seems to be tracks of two, three or more lines when we look back. Which line did we walk through? Suddenly I am likely to be suspicious of the “narrative”  that I have believed a little while ago. The voices inflame our self-esteem, attempting to conserve the dignity of one’s country from the past to the present. The voices echo with loudly speaking of authenticity of following timeline of our history. Sometimes they are comfortable to our ears, and attracting. I wonder  I am a traveler walking among the woods seduced by a whisper of pixie, or a sailor who voyage around the sea yield to the temptation of a sing of Siren.

All of a sudden, everything turned to chaos that I felt like that I cannot understand whole things mentioned above. How should I understand history, narrative and folklore? Survivors who lived “Events” are ageing gradually and passing away, memories are fading as time goes by, they are spreading into branches, and turned into narratives. In order to appreciate why would “Event” has happened, we must think of the royal way of handing down narratives. If the way exists.

Recently, I have read a book(which belongs to my wife), written by Oka Mari, titled as “Memory/Narrative”, published by Iwanami Shoten. This discussion was written in 2000, what I own is noted that it is printed in 2014, as 14th edition. I think it suggests that this book are widely read. It has about 110 pages, I found it is a good amount for me to read carefully. Her insight starts from the “Event” that massacre of Palestines took place in August 12th, 1976, where the place named “thymes thriving hill”, “Tel al-Zaatar, تل الزعتر”. She mentions the questions occurred by reading the work of Liana Badr, who is a Palestine writer, “The Eye of the Mirror”, written about the massacre. Then she proceeds her questions as follows.

 How could we share the memory of “Event’? In order to possess Memory of “Event”, the “Event” should firstly be told, should be handed down. What is the mean of telling  memory of “Event” as it is shared genuinely with others? Is it possible to exist such narrative? Will it be consisted as we expected? If it exists, is that a matter of precision of realism? Numerous questions occurs.

There must be a critical meaning for thinking about the possibility of sharing memory of “Event”, when we are involved with the struggle of memory regarding various ”Events”, in the present. I would like to think of these questions by starting following discussion.

The verb “share” means “have a portion of (something) with another or others”. Her questions like these are quite stimulating for me, I am not sure that I can solve them anyway, I found that this could be the utmost opportunity to reflect on these matters of mine.

Thanks for reading so far.

What I have in my mind

This article is a translation of previous one.

When I was browsing books about great writers or writings, I coincidentally made the acquaintance of other writers frequently, that mainly attracted me in the past, whereas I had suspended further research on them. I never anticipated to find out the notification in the book that one and another had actually met or they had been in the same place before, or he/she had been quoted as an example of their story. That was like unexpectedly completing a piece of gigantic jigsaw puzzle which is very hard in the process of making, I felt an ease which was the same sense of fitting something accurately in my heart. If I were to see as a flying creature the vast ground from the highest view among obscure clouds, it might be as well as seeing slight landscape through a chink which is getting wider. So I would fain tell viewers about my tiny experiences which are short, and to write down my prospect as well.

At first, I would like to mention of Khalil Gibran. I brought my mind to the translation of his poetry had been arranged among the works of Kamiya Mieko in the section of Misuzu Shobo in some bookshops since long time ago. I wondered his name supposed to be originated from west Asia, and I thumbed through one of Kamiya’s book. After that I knew that Kamiya Mieko was in the department of Psychiatry of Tokyo University, school of medicine, in which Kinoshita Mokutaro(Ohta Masao) was belong to the department of Dermatology as a professor. Such connection has directly nothing to do with literary meaning, however, people may get close each other unconsciously by somewhat called a gravity, I must say.

I learnt that Gibran was born in Lebanon, where the former Ottoman empire had occupied, and he has been famous for his poetry, especially “The Prophet” has been read worldwide. It is true that his works translated in Japanese are available in remote cities of Japan as well, nevertheless the original version can be purchased only online if living in local cities. It is all the more difficult to buy other language edition. The other day I found that Gibran firstly conceived the idea of “The Prophet” in Arabic. He went to the America in his youth and learnt skills of English, then he also went back home to receive higher education of Arabic.

Fortunately I got an ebook of “The Prophet” in English and Arabic version. I am not get used to read in Kindle, but it was a good purchase that I got it within 1,000Yen. As I read the introduction, that says it took twenty years to translate in Arabic. What a long journey it is! I cannot understand the concept of price tagging when I came across such a valuable book that is affordable less than 1,000Yen. I am also a member of Kindle unlimited in Amazon.com, so I am able to read the Japanese translation by Sakuma Takeshi for free. Then I have started to read it. What I felt was that it was easy to read and not many pages. But I have to mention that read easily and be comprehensible are not the same. The energy that the writer brought his heart to bear upon every single words must be so immense that I have to read it thoroughly. This is one of my utmost happiness to realise that I can examine it many times. As for the title “The Prophet”, it is a story like a manual of life course, the prophet Almustafa(المصطفى), teaches lessons to people who need guidance. I have not read the original poetry yet so it is not the time to speak of it. And I have got the reasonable reference book for studying Arabic at last, I would like to reverse translate gradually by using this ebook. Someday I would be happy to introduce the study result.

Secondly, I would fain speak of Rabindranath Tagore. Recently, I have very been attracted by the fact that non-English born person such as Gibran creates great English writings. Needless to say, Okakura Tenshin who is inordinately contributed to Kamegoro Law Firm is the one of greatest writer from non-Anglosphere, I believe. It is tremendously shameful for me to tell you that I thought that nothing better than using own language when expressing one’s own culture. How stupid I am! That is not true. At least Tenshin himself succeeded in attempting it in literature. Of course Gibran must have accomplished, not to mention Tagore and other writers who I do not know. I am very excited to know the fact all the more that Tenshin and Tagore knew each other, and visited their countries. It is said that Tagore has been to Tenshin’s tombstone when he died. Tagore was in Izura! He wrote “Gitanjali(গীতাঞ্জলি)” in Bengali, later on he wrote it again in English. Someday, I wish I could read his work.

I think that it is a huge encouragement for me to know that such people who are from non-Anglosphere write English literature. Particularly as for myself, who live in the world of totally different linguistic family, is quite an incentive.

I sometimes write articles in English, which are not praiseworthy contents and I think I am at best the third-rate writer. There must be many errors in my sentences. But I would like to keep writing my blog in English with my style. Then I would like to sophisticate my essay writing technique, not to be contented with the present situation, humbly tolerate the critics of others and review retrospectively by myself.

Finally, I would fain end the article by introducing a songwriter from Iceland. His name is Ásgeir Trausti. He speaks Icelandic but also good at writing beautiful lyrics in English.

Glistening nighttime dew, and she is walking with me.  

From the house of red, I hear a child crying.  

Foxes heading home, their prey hangs from their jaws.

And the forest knows, but it won’t share the secret.

When the king takes sides, leaving moral minds; soldiers take their share. Nighthawks seem to sense that now is the time.  

Deep inside them burns the raging fire of life.

He’ll take back what he owns.

Death cannot take hold, if I can keep momentum.  

Fortresses of stone, turn into crystal tears soothed by southern winds; I’ve found my strength now.  

And nobody knows, and we must keep their secret.

When the king takes sides, leaving moral minds; soldiers take their share. Nighthawks seem to sense that now is the time.

Deep inside them burns the raging fire of life.

He’ll take back what he owns.

When the king takes sides, leaving moral minds; soldiers take their share. Nighthawks seem to sense that now is the time.

Deep inside them burns the raging fire of life.

He’ll take back what he owns.

Dýrð í dauðaþögn, 2012 (In the Silence, 2013)

Thank you for reading.

私の考えていること

background balance beach boulder
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 ある一つの著作なり文人について読み調べると、思いがけずとある箇所で他の著作家について記されていることがある.その著作家というのは以前から関心を寄せていた人物であることが多い一方で、それ以上の関心を留保していたことがよくあった.引用のこともあれば、実際に人物らが出会っていた、同じ場所を出入りしていたということを知る.作りかけのジグソーパズルの一ピースが意図せず偶然当てはまるような感覚で、心の中でもぴたりと符合する心地よい感覚を覚える.私が飛翔体となって巨大な地上の文学を暗雲たる空から俯瞰するとすれば、雲と雲の切れ目が少しだけ広くなって、わずかに地上の景色が見えるような、そんな感じでもある.そんなことが何度かあったから、それについて短いけれどお伝えすることとし、私の展望と合わせてここに記そうと思う.

 一つは、Khalil Gibran (ハリール・ジブラーン)のこと.私は、ずっと前から書店のみすず書房のコーナーに、神谷美恵子の著作が並んでいて、その中にGibranの詩訳が置いてあったのが気になっていた.名前からして西アジア出身の人物かな、という類推のもと、パラパラと本をめくったことがあった.神谷美恵子は木下杢太郎(太田正雄)が皮膚科教授であったころの東大医局に出入りしていたと後に知った.こうした縁は文学上直接な関係があったわけではないにせよ、人々は何らかの奇妙な引力でお互いに惹かれ合うのかもしれない.そういうしかない.

 Gibranは当時オスマン帝国の支配下にあったレバノンの出身であること、詩作がよく知られていること、特に「The Prophet:預言者」が世界中で翻訳されていることを私は知った.和文翻訳は確かに大きな書店でも並んでいて、有名だ.だが、原文は地方では通信販売でしか手に入らない.他言語であれば尚更である.私は別の時期に、GibranがThe Prophetを最初はアラビア語で構想を練ったことを知る.彼は若い頃に渡米し英語の素養を身につけるが、帰国しアラビア語の高等教育をも学んでいる.

 幸運にもアラビア語版と原文同時収録の電子書籍を手に入れることができた.私はあまりKindleを使わないから不慣れだが、1000円未満で入手できたのは良い.本の紹介を見ると訳に20年ほどかけたと書いてある.何という長い旅路であることか.これが1000円未満程度になってしまうとは物の価値はよくわからない.私はKindle unlimitedにも入っているから佐久間彪訳の邦訳を無料で読むことができる.そして早速読んでみた.私が感じたのは、思ったほど分量がないことと大変読みやすいということであった.ただ、読みやすいのとわかりやすいというのは意味が異なる.一言一句にかけるエネルギー量が他の作品と違うであろうから、何度もよく読む必要がある.これは何度も味わえるということだから、嬉しいことこの上ない.預言者という題名であるが、人生における手引きのような感覚で、預言者アルムスタファ(المصطفى)が人々に助言を与えるといった内容だ.私は原文を読んでいないから書評はこれからとなる.そして私はアラビア語の勉強に相応しいであろう教材をようやく入手できたから少しずつ、勉強がてら逆翻訳してみようと思っている.近いうちに紹介したいと思う.

 もう一つはRabindranath Tagore(ラビンドラナート・タゴール)のこと.私は最近、Gibranのように非英語圏の人物が優れた英文を著す、という事実に大変心惹かれている.勿論、亀吾郎法律事務所でお世話になっている岡倉天心も非英語圏の優れた著述家であろうと私は思っている.このようなことを言うのは無知を晒すようで恥ずかしいのであるが、私は、自国文化のことを表現するのに自国の言語以上に優れたものはないと思っていたことがあった.何という愚かさ.そんなことはないのだ.少なくとも天心はその試みにおいて成功している.もちろんGibranも成し遂げているのだろう.そしてTagoreも、私の知らない数多くの文人達も.私は天心とTagoreが親交を持ち、両者が互いに行き来したという事実を知り、益々興味が湧いている.Tagoreは天心の死後に彼の墓を訪れているという.Tagoreは五浦にいたことがあったのか.彼ははベンガル語でGitanjali (ギタンジャリ:গীতাঞ্জলি)を著し、後に英文で同著を書いたという.いつか彼の作品を読んでみたいと思っている.

 こうした人々が非母国語で文学作品を創作するというのは、心做しか大いに勇気づけられるものではないのかなと思う.特に語族が大きく異なる文化圏に暮らしている身としては.

 時々私は英文をブログに載せるが、どう贔屓目に見ても私の英文はよくできているとは思えない.様々な瑕疵があるに違いない.だが私は私なりの英文を書いていこうと考えている.そして後から見直してみたり、他者の批評を謹んで受けて少しずつ良いものを目指していきたい.

 最後に、アイスランド出身の作曲家の歌詞を紹介してお終いにしたい.彼はÁsgeir Trausti(アウスゲイル・トロスティ).彼の母語は勿論アイスランド語であるが、英語の美しい詩を書いている.

King and Cross

Glistening nighttime dew, and she is walking with me.  

From the house of red, I hear a child crying.  

Foxes heading home, their prey hangs from their jaws.

And the forest knows, but it won’t share the secret.

When the king takes sides, leaving moral minds; soldiers take their share. Nighthawks seem to sense that now is the time.  

Deep inside them burns the raging fire of life.

He’ll take back what he owns.

Death cannot take hold, if I can keep momentum.  

Fortresses of stone, turn into crystal tears soothed by southern winds; I’ve found my strength now.  

And nobody knows, and we must keep their secret.

When the king takes sides, leaving moral minds; soldiers take their share. Nighthawks seem to sense that now is the time.

Deep inside them burns the raging fire of life.

He’ll take back what he owns.

When the king takes sides, leaving moral minds; soldiers take their share. Nighthawks seem to sense that now is the time.

Deep inside them burns the raging fire of life.

He’ll take back what he owns.

In the Silence, 2013

The Book of Tea: 8

The Book of Tea: 茶の本

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 吾郎君、一体君はいつになったら現象学の続きを書くのかね、と気になる読者がいるかも知れない.心配ご無用である.まだ考えがまとまっていないだけだ.例え話をしてごまかすことにする.

 早朝に漁港へ行くと、ねじり鉢巻をしたおじさんたちが沢山集っていて、お魚を求めて遥々やってきた人々を迎え討つ.一方、良い鮮魚を良い値段で探そうと買い手は必死だ.どれにしようか、あれにしようか.今日はアレ入ってないの?そっかぁ.代わりに何があるって?へぇ、いいじゃない.ソレちょうだいよ.なんていうかもしれない.素材を仕入れて自分の店に戻るとあとは店主のお気に召すままである.魚を捌いて仕込みをする.丁寧に不要な部分を取り出して可食部を洗練させるべく、技工を凝らす.鮮魚故の身の若さから、少し熟成させて旨味を引き出すこともあるかもしれない.客の手元に料理が供され、彼らの口腔内で食材が崩壊するまで、食材は究極完全体として最高の姿であり続けるが、それは蜉蝣の命よりも短い.儚いものよ.あれだけ懸命に探しやっとの思いで手に入れた逸品を、我々の臼歯で擦り潰され、舌で転がされ、消化液と混ざり分解されてしまうのだ.そして皆、液体か粘性の高い褐色の汚物を放り出す.寿司屋で握られたばかりの寿司を口に運んで飲み込むまでの短さ.どうしようもなく美味い.美味いと感じる記憶は永劫だが、その永劫は実際は一瞬であることを知り、その一瞬は消失する.消えたものは姿かたちを変えて、また回帰する.また寿司屋に行けば同じネタが食べられる.しかし同じといってもネタの同一性は連続的ではないことは自明である.以前食べたコハダはもはや貴方の排泄物であり、糞尿でなければ、下水かもしれないし、新たな土壌の肥やしになっているやもしれぬ.

 つまりどういうことかと言われれば、現象学の続編は「準備中」というわけだ.筆者は今まさにネタを仕込んでいる.しかしネタを仕込む時間がどんなにかかっても、公開されて読まれるときは、大抵一瞬である.人々の忘却の彼方へネタが霧散するのはとても切ないからじっくりコトコト準備しようと思っている.一応私なりの職人気質風情はあるので、良いものをお値打ち価格(無償)で提供したい.それをつまらないと思うかどうかは結局お客さんにお任せするしかないのだが.ゴミのような記事を量産する方にはなりたくない.勿体ぶって言うと、亀吾郎法律事務所文芸部哲学科現象学教室は普請中である.お待ちくだされば幸いかな.岡倉天心でお茶を濁すとしよう、と言うと天心に「茶気がなさすぎる」と怒られてしまう.以下、三章の訳文です.粗茶ですがどうぞ.

The germ of Taoist speculation may be found long before the advent of Laotse, surnamed the Long-Eared. The archaic records of China, especially the Book of Changes, foreshadow his thought. But the great respect paid to the laws and customs of that classic period of Chinese civilisation which culminated with the establishment of the Chow dynasty in the sixteenth century B. C., kept the development of individualism in check for a long while, so that it was not until after the disintegration of the Chow dynasty and the establishment of innumerable independent of kingdoms that it was able to blossom forth in the luxuriance of free-thought. Laotse and Soshi (Chuangtse) were both Southerners and the greatest exponents of the New School. On the other hand Confucius with his numerous disciples aimed at retaining ancestral conventions. Taoism cannot be understood without some knowledge of Confucianism and vice versa.

We have said that the Taoist Absolute was the Relative. In ethics the Taoist railed at the laws and the moral codes of society, for to them right and wrong were but relative terms. Definition is always limitation – the “fixed” and “unchangeless” are but terms expressive of a stoppage of growth. Said Kutsugen, – “The Sages move the world.” Our standards of morality are begotten of past needs of society, but is society to remain always the same? The observance of communal traditions involves a constant sacrifice of the individual to the state. Education, in order to keep up the mighty delusuion, encourages a species of ignorance. People are not taught to be really virtuous, but to behave properly. We are wicked because we are frightfully self-conscious. We never forgive others because we know that we ourselves are in the wrong. We nurse a conscious because we are afraid to tell the truth to others; we take refuge in pride because we are afraid to tell the truth to ourselves. How can one be serious with the world when the world itself is so ridiculous! The spirit of barter is everywhere. Humour and Chastity! Behold the complacent salesman retailing the Good and True. One can even buy a so-called Religion, which is really but common morality sanctified with flowers and music. Rob the Church of her accessories and what remains behind? Yet the trusts thrive marvellously, for the prices are absurdly cheap, – a prayer for a ticket to heaven, a diploma for an honourable citizenship. Hide yourself under a bushel quickly, for if your real usefulness were known to the world you would soon be knocked down to the highest bidder by the public auctioneer. Why do men and women like to advertise themselves so much? Is it not but an instinct derived from the days of slavery?

The virility of the idea lies not less in its power of breaking through contemporary thought than in its capacity for dominating subsequent movements. Taoism was an active power during the Shin dynasty, that epoch of Chinese unification from which we derive the name China. It would be interesting had we time to note its influence on contemporary thinkers, the mathematicians, writers on law and war, the mystics and alchemists and the later nature-poets of the Yangtse-Kiang. We should not even ignore those speculators on Reality who doubted whether a white horse was real because he was white, or because he was solid, nor the Conversationalists of the Six dynasties who, like the Zen philosophers, revelled in discussions concerning the Pure and the Abstract. Above all we should pay homage to Taoism for what it has done toward the formation of the Celestial character, giving to it a certain capacity for reserve and refinement as “warm as jade.” Chinese history is full of instances in which the votaries of Taoism, princes and hermits alike, followed with varied and interesting results the teachings of their creed. The tale will not be without its quota of instruction and amusement. It will be rich in anecdotes, allegories, and aphorisms. We would fain be on speaking terms with the delightful emperor who never died because he never lived. We may ride the wind with Liehtse and find it absolutely quiet because we ourselves are the wind, or dwell in mid-air with the Aged One of the Hoang-Ho, who lived betwixt Heaven and Earth because he was subject to neither the one nor the other. Even in that grotesque apology for Taoism which we find in China at the present day, we can revel in a wealth of imagery impossible to find in any other cult.

 道教徒の思索の萌芽は老子、長耳の翁とあだ名された人物が到来する遥か前に見出されるだろう.中国の古代の記録、特に「易経」が、彼の思想の先触れである.しかし紀元前十六世紀に周王朝創始とともに最高潮に達した中国文明の古典時代の法と慣習に払われた大いなる敬意は長きにわたり個人主義の発展を阻害した.個人主義が自由思想へと花開くことが可能となったのは、周王朝が解体し諸王国が独立して樹立した後からであった.

 老子と莊子は二人共南部出身の新学派の偉大な代表人物であった.一方で孔子と数多くの門弟は古くからの慣習を保持しようと目指してきた.道教は儒教の知識を知らずして理解はできず、逆も然りである.

 道教徒の「絶対」は「相対」だと我々は述べた.倫理学において道教徒が社会の法と道徳律を罵倒したのは彼らにとって善悪は相対的な用語にすぎなかったからであった.定義には制約がつきまとう.「一定」と「不変」は異なる用語だが成長の停止を表す.屈原は次のように述べた.「賢者は世界とともに動く」.我々の道徳の基準は社会の過去の必要で生まれたものである.しかし社会はまったく同じ状態であるだろうか.共同社会の伝統を遵守することは、個人が国家に対して常に犠牲を払うことである.教育というのは、多いな幻想に追従するため、無知の種を奨励するのである.人々は真に貞淑を教わるのではなく、真っ当に振る舞うことを教わるのである.我々が不徳であるのはあまりにも自意識がすぎるからだ.我々は他者を許すことが決してないのは、自分たちが間違っていると知っているからだ.我々は良心を大切にするのは真実を他に伝えるのを恐れるからである.自身に真実を伝えることを恐れるから自負に訴える.世間そのものが馬鹿げているのにどうして世間に真面目でいられるのか.物々交換の精神はそこら中にある.ユーモアと純潔だと.「善」だの「真」だのを商売にする独善的な商人を見たまえ.人は所謂信仰を買うことはできるが、花と音楽で聖別された通例の道徳にすぎない.教会からそうしたお飾りを取り去って何が残るのか.しかし企業連中は大繁盛だ.値段は呆れるほど易いからだ.天国行きの切符を手に入れるための祈りも、名誉市民の免状も.急いで自分の天賦を隠すのだ.貴方の本当に役立つものが世界に知られると、競売にかけられ最高入札額で落札されるだろう.なぜ男も女もそんなに自分を広告したがるのだ.奴隷時代に由来する本能なのではないか.

 続発的な諸運動を支配する能力に劣らず、同時代の思想を突破する力に、道教思想の雄渾はある.道教は、支那という名が得られた中国統一の始まりである秦王朝の間、実質的力を持っていた.もし同じ時代の思想家、数学者、兵法家、神秘主義者、錬金術者そして揚子江の後期自然詩人が蒙るその影響を私達が記す時間はないが、それは興味深いであろう.白馬が本物なのはそれが白いからだ、あるいは固体だからである故かと考える「実在」思想家や、禅学者のように「純粋」と「抽象」に関する議論に耽った六朝の保守派を無視するべきではない.とりわけ、我々はみな「翡翠のように暖かい」慎みと清廉の能力を授け、中国の特性形成にむけて成し得た道教に敬意を払うべきである.中国の歴史は道教の唱道者、王侯や隠者も同じく、信条の教えを説く多彩で面白い説話で溢れている.説話は説法と愉悦が必ず割り当てられている.逸話や寓話、金言が存分に含まれている.我々は喜んで、生きていないから死んでもいない愉快な皇帝と話をしたいものだ.我々は風そのものなのだから、列子と風に乗り、絶対の静寂を探そう.或いは黄河の翁たちが、天でも地でもない故に天地の間に暮らしたように、彼らとともに中空にとどまろう.今日の中国で我々が見出す奇抜な弁明の道教にさえも、我々は他のいかなる信仰では見つけられない豊富な空想話を楽しむことができるのだ.

 なかなか翻訳は骨が折れる作業ですが、天心の言わんとするところを感じる瞬間、すっと風が吹いてきて気持ちが良いのです.特に第二段落は圧巻です.世間が馬鹿げているのにどうして真面目でいられる?この頃から世の中は馬鹿げているのだなぁ、やっぱりそうなんだなぁ.亀吾郎法律事務所も俗っぽくなって試しに広告掲載を始めましたが、収益は一切ございません!やったぜ.

 ”Why do men and women like to advertise themselves so much? Is it not but an instinct derived from the days of slavery?”「なんでみんなそんなに広告好きなの?奴隷根性抜けてないんじゃないの?」と言われてしまえば返す言葉もございません.拝金主義?所詮亀吾郎法律事務所も俗人の集いなのかもしれない.でも俗人でない人っているのかしら.

 ここまで読んでくださりありがとうございました.

ニュー・ジャック・スイングに寄せて

Photo by Sebastian Ervi on Pexels.com

 ニュー・ジャック・スイング(New jack swing: NJS)という音楽ジャンルがある.ご存知でない方に素人なりの説明をすると、1980年代後半から90年前半にかけて流行したジャンルで、黒人音楽家を中心に、歌謡曲の音楽シーンを席巻したとされる.ジャズやポップスやリズム・アンド・ブルースに近いのかもしれない.

 この頃の私は、まだ存在も怪しく、人間としても曖昧な状態であったので記憶にない.NJSを知ったのは2000年代後半であった.その時は私は一介の浪人であり、主に川口市で住み込みで勉強をしていた.大学受験という戦場を生き残るべく、私は朧気な幽鬼(ゴースト・オブ・カワグチ)となって、満員電車の薄い酸素を吸い、都会のすえた臭いやタバコの煙を否応なく浴びていた. 

 とあるNJSの代表的な音楽家がその頃プロポフォールの呼吸抑制で死亡し、世間は皆こぞって「R. I. P.」という言葉を使いはじめ、小児性愛の嫌疑で煙たがられた彼を掌返しして、優れたエンターテイナーとして称賛し始めたときであったと思う.実際に傑出した人物であったのだが.

 私は、模擬戦ともいえる模試をいくつも受け終えて、ヘトヘトとなり川口市のショッピングモールにあるCDショップに癒やしを求めていた.音楽を聴くこと、寝ること、食事が癒やしだった.以前購入したエミネム(Eminem)のアルバム、「Relapse」を聴いたとき、それは覚醒剤の後遺症再燃を音楽にした内容で、曲も歌詞も病的に狂気じみていたために、買って興ざめしてしまった苦い経験があった.その失敗を繰り返したくないと思い、私はアルバム選びを慎重に行おうとしていた.エミネムを非難するつもりはなく、勿論、彼の曲には「Lose yourself」や「Stan」、「Without me」といった洗練された怒りと痛烈な風刺が込められたものが多く、浪人の身によく沁みたものであった.期待して新作を買いたくなっただけだった.

 訪れたCDショップも漏れなく「R. I. P.」で飾られた希代のエンターテイナーを追悼するコーナーを設け、悼みを経済の力にする意図があったように思う.私は結果的にその意図に便乗した.彼は御存知の通り、マイケル・ジャクソン(Michael Jackson)である.当時、CDはまだ売れていた時代で、ガラケーが流布していた.音楽配信が定額制(サブスクリプション)ではなかった頃で、もっぱら元データをパソコンに取り込んだり、携帯電話に移植することが求められた.そういった時代は、そういうものだとして、特に不自由しなかった.アルバムの表紙(ジャケット)は今でもそうかもしれないが、音楽家の思想・信条・作風を象徴する、そんな理解で私は鑑賞していた.

 「Dangerous」というアルバムがある.これは1991年に出た作品で、ジャクソンの黄金期にあったものだと思う.このアルバムのジャケットは奇怪である.彼の中性的な眼差しだけがベネチアンマスクのように縁取られており、何かを招くような門の華飾になっている.周囲には様々な偶像が描かれ、意味深なのか意味不明なのか、一目見てわかるようなものではなかった.背景は真っ暗で華美すぎる上記の装飾と対照的である.どこか無機的な彼の目線を除けば、静かな狂気を感じる.彼の栄光とその内面の陰りを示唆しているのかはわからないが、熱心なファンであれば十分な薀蓄を語るに足るデザインであろう.

 私はそのジャケットに惹かれた.ジャクソンのことは全く知らなかった.若干Freakyな人物なのかな、といった前情報しか知らなかった.偏見もなかった.だからあまり期待はしなかった.「Relapse」の教訓は生かされなかった.

 学生寮に戻り、私はCDプレイヤーにディスクをはめて、再生した.ガラスの割れる音がして、

“One, two, three, jam…”

という声がし始めてまもなく、今まで聴いたこともない音が、私を揺さぶった.何だ、この音作りは.何かを引きずるような、叩きつけるような、打ちのめすような旋律は.それにこの透き通るようでパンチの効いた声は聴いたことがない.これがマイケル・ジャクソンか.

 すかさず私は、付属の歌詞カードを眺めた.最近はCDを買わないので事情を知らないが、当時のCD付属の歌詞と和訳が乗った小冊子はとても好きだった.誰だかわからないふざけた名前の人物が、歌手の来歴と曲の紹介を綴っていて、純粋な読み物として面白かったのだ.現在はどうなっているのだろうか.

 一曲目は「Jam」という.歌詞からして果物を煮込んで瓶詰めにしたものではなさそうだ.

“Jam, it ain’t too much for me to”

と歌詞には繰り返しある.Jam、という言葉をどう訳するかが鍵のようだ.語順からしてto不定詞の後であるから、動詞として用いるはずである.あるいは先頭に来ているから、やはり動詞の命令形として一部使いそうだ.という推測はつく.私が当時読んだ歌詞カードには「jam」は次のように訳してあった.

「集中せよ」(*Wikipediaの記事では「集中よ」とある)

 ふーむ.と私は疑りながらも、一応の説得力を持つ訳だなと当時は思わざるを得なかった(*集中よ、の訳はよくわからない).辞書で引いても「集中」という解釈は出てこない.さてどうしたものか.ところで”it ain’t too much for me to”に触れておくと、ain’tというのは、is not, am not, are notの略という理解で良いだろう.Itは形式主語であり、意味上の主語はforに続くmeである.つまり、「私にとって(to以下は)多すぎることはない」、「私には(to以下は)どうということはない」、「(to以下は)どうってことないぜ」の意で通せる.(to以下)のことはjamにもつながるので後述する.

 彼の歌詞の訳はウェブ上で沢山あるので今はいつでも参照できる.私がゴースト・オブ・カワグチだった頃、そういうものはまだ少なかったから、言葉を調べたり、訳を考えるには己の髄脳で考えるのが早かった.才能が許せばの話だが.当時は才能が許さなかったので、今考えている次第である.かといって今の私に才能があるわけではない.

 jamはあまり良い意味で用いられないことが多い認識である.例えば、交通渋滞はtraffic jamである.これが最もjamの名詞的用法として理解しやすいだろう.Thesaurusで調べてみれば、

1. a traffic jam: tailback, line, stream, hold-up, obstruction, congestion, bottleneck, stoppage

2. informal I’d tell you if we ever got into a real jam: predicament, plight, tricky situation, ticklish situation, awkward situation, spot of trouble, bit of bother, difficulty, problem, puzzle, quandary, dilemma, muddle, mess, quagmire, mire, imbroglio, mare’s nest, dire straits; with nowhere to turn

といった具合である.動詞はというと、

1. he jammed a finger in each ear: stuff, shove, force, ram, thrust, wedge, press, push, stick, squeeze, compress, confine, cram, pack, sandwich, insert.

2. several hundred friends and celebrities jammed into the shop students soon jammed the streets: crowd, pack, pile, press, squeeze, cram; throng, occupy, fill, overfill, overcrowd; obstruct, block, clog, congest; North American mob.

3. the rudder had jammed: stick, become stuck, catch, seize (up), become immobilised, become unable to move, become fixed, become wedged, become lodged, become trapped.

であり、何かがギュウギュウ詰めになっている、鮨詰め状態で閉塞している状態を表していることに変わりない.辞書的にそんなに良い意味ではない.正月の福袋をもらいにギュウギュウになる人々を見て良い気はしない.ギュウギュウ詰めで嬉しいのは餃子や肉まん、焼売などだろう.

 ジャムが果実を煮詰めて濃縮したもの(concentration)と考えれば、濃縮という言葉を人間の動作に適用すると「集中」といった言葉になるのかもしれない.しかし、待てよ.

“Jam, it ain’t too much for me to”

ばかりに気を取られていると大意を見失うやもしれない.以下に歌詞の一部を引用する.

Nation to nation all the world must come together
Face the problems that we see
Then maybe somehow we can work it out
I asked my neighbor for a favor she said later
What has come of all the people have we lost love of what it’s about

I have to find my peace cuz no one seems to let me be
False prophets cry of doom
What are the possibilities
I told my brother there’ll be problems,
Times and tears for fears,
We must live each day like it’s the last

Go with it, Go with it,

Jam
It ain’t too much stuff
It ain’t too much
It ain’t too much for me to
Jam
It ain’t It ain’t too much stuff
It ain’t Don’t you
It ain’t too much for me to

The world keeps changing
Rearranging minds and thoughts predictions fly of doom
The baby boom has come of age
We’ll work it out

I told my brothers
Don’t you ask me for no favors
I’m conditioned by the system
Don’t you talk to me
Don’t scream and shout

She prays to god, to Buddha
Then she sings a Talmud song
Confusions contradict the self
Do we know right from wrong
I just want you to recognize me in the temple
You can’t hurt me
I found peace within myself

 「私」の願いが他者たる社会へ届かない現実と、それでも社会へ協力を呼びかける「私」、といった具合だろうか.解釈は多義的になるとしても大筋は間違ってはいまい.メッセージ性はさておき、jamの意味を考えると「集中せよ」よりも「集結せよ」「集え」のほうが私見では良さそうである.その理由は歌詞の冒頭が一つになりうるだろう.「come together」は一緒になる、一つになる、という意味だ.「国家や人々が一つになって問題を直視せねば」という歌詞からわかるように、社会の関心を呼びかける文意を考慮すると、jamは「concentrate」よりも「unite」寄りの理解が適切と思われる.音楽の用語でジャムというのは、複数人が集まって即興の演奏をするような、ゴチャゴチャ感を含んだものを言うらしい.セッションというやつか.黒人の音楽一家を出自にもつジャクソンにとってjamは決して否定的な意味ではなく、むしろ人が集まることで偶然生まれる無限の可能性を言うのかもしれない.uniteという言葉は力強いが物言いがはっきりしているだけに、政治的な意味合いを含み得る.jamの方が音としてもシンプルで、通っぽく、俗っぽくて良い.昭和のツッパリみたいな言い方をすると、「つるむ」というのか.

 では訳はどのように反映させたら良いか.これは難しい問題である.韻を意識せずに訳することが許されるなら、「集まろう」、「まとまろう」、「さぁ一緒に」と言った具合だろうか.うまくいかない.団結でも良いが、「労働者よ、団結せよ!」のような誤解をされてしまうのも氏に失礼である.単なる命令形では上からの物言いで高圧的な感じを与える.のび太くんに「俺たち友達だよな?な?友達ですって言えよ」というジャイアンのようになってしまう.

「俺とつるもうぜ」

となると、男子生徒が一緒にトイレに行く「連れション」になってしまいそうで、私は採用できない.うむむむ.難しい.私はjamの訳を今でも10年近くずっと考えている.

 私は「Dangerous」以来、ジャクソンの歌うNJS調の曲が好みの一つになった.彼自身がどういう人物かはともかく氏の音楽は浪人時代の学業の賦活剤となった.聴力に悪影響を及ばさない程度に大音量で聴いていた.電車内のノイズキャンセラー、試験前の緊張感を緩和するメンターとして浪人時代の秋以降、ずっと聴いていたのだった.私の脳内セロトニン濃度を一定に保てたのは氏のおかげかもしれない.

 NJSが今も残っているのかどうか知らないが、私にとってこの音楽ジャンルは私の心を強く揺さぶった(swingした)であり、洋楽への関心をより惹きつけた重要な用語である.この曲を聴いたのは9月のことだった.私にとって9月は秋の訪れだけでなく、新たな音楽との歴史的邂逅でもあった.今でもこの季節になるとNJSが脳裏を揺さぶる.

ここまで読んでくださりありがとうございました.

 

The Book of Tea: 6

Chapter II 第二章

 こんにちは.第二章の続きです.ここで一度岡倉天心の和訳は中断して、また他の記事を書いていくつもりです.大体このような5−6段落の英文は、3-4時間くらいで和訳するのですが、この速度はどのくらいの水準なのでしょうね.この本、本当にお茶の勉強になりますよ!

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The tea-ideal of the Sungs differed from the Tangs even as their notion of life differed. They sought to actualise what their predecessors tried to symbolise. To the Neo-Confucian mind the cosmic law was not reflected in the phenomenal world, but the phenomenal world was the cosmic law itself. AEons were but moments – Nirvana always within grasp. The Taoist conception that immortality lay in the eternal change permeated all their modes of thought. It was the process, not the dead, which was interesting. It was the completing, not the completion, which was really vital. Man came thus at once face to face with nature. A new meaning grew into the art of life. The tea began to be not a potential pastime, but one of the methods of self-realisation. Wangyucheng eulogised tea as “flooding his soul like a direct appeal, that its delicate bitterness reminded him of the after-taste of a good counsel.” Sotumpa wrote of the strength of the immaculate purity in tea which defied corruption as a truly virtuous man. Among the Buddhists, the southern Zen sect, which incorporated so much of Taoist doctrines, formulated an elaborate ritual of tea. The monks gathered before the image of Bodhi Dharma and drank tea out of a single bowl with the profound formality of a holy sacrament. It was this Zen ritual which finally developed into the Tea-ceremony of Japan in the fifteenth century.

 宋の茶の理想は唐のそれと異なるように、彼らの人生観と相応死している.宋の人々は自分らの先祖が象徴化しようと試みたものを具現化しようとした.新儒教徒の精神にとって、宇宙の法則は現象世界において反映しているのでなく、現象世界が宇宙の法則そのものなのであった.永劫とは一瞬であり涅槃は常に掌中にあった.不死性が永遠の変化の中に存在するという道教徒の概念は宋人全員の思考様式に浸透した.興味深いのは過程であり、死ではない.真に重要なものであるのは、完成させることであって完成ではない.このようにして即座に人は自然と向き合ってきた.新しい意味が萌えて生の芸術へ育まれていった.茶は詩的な気晴らしではなく、自己実現の手段の一つとなっていった.王禹偁は茶を「直な魅力のように魂を満たし、その繊細な苦さは良い助言の後味を思い起こさせる」と賛辞した.蘇東坡(蘇軾)は、真に徳のある人物として腐敗を拒む茶の清浄無垢の力だと記した.仏教徒の間で、南方の禅の宗派は、道教の教義をかなり取り入れていて、凝った茶の儀式を定めた.僧侶たちは菩提達磨の像の前に集い、深淵な聖餐の儀礼的行為とともに一杯の茶を飲んだ.十五世紀の日本の茶の湯を最終的に発展させたのは禅宗の儀礼であったのだ.

Unfortunately the sudden outburst of the Mongol tribes in the thirteenth century which resulted in the devastation and conquest of China under the barbaric rule of the Yuen Emperors, destroyed all the fruits of Sung culture. The native dynasty of the Mings which attempted re-nationalisation in the middle of the fifteenth century was harassed by internal troubles, and China again fell under the alien rule of the Manchus in the seventeenth century. Manners and customs changed to leave no vestige of the former times. The powdered tea is entirely forgotten. We find a Ming commentator at loss to recall the shape of the whisk mentioned in one of the Sung classics. Tea is now taken by sleeping the leaves in hot water in a bowl or cup. The reason why the Western world is innocent of the older method of drinking tea is explained by the fact that Europe knew it only at the close of the Ming dynasty.

 不幸なことに、十三世紀の蒙古族の突発的襲来によって、中国が侵略され荒廃し、元朝の野蛮な支配下で、宋文化のあらゆる成果を破壊された.十五世紀中葉で国家再興を企てた土着の明王朝は、内憂によって困窮し、中国は十七世紀の満州族の異人統治に再び甘んじた.風俗慣習は変わり先代の形跡を微塵も残さなかった.抹茶は完全に忘れ去られた.明時代の評論家は、宋時代の古典の一つに言及された茶筅の形を呼び覚ますことに途方に暮れている.茶は湯の入った茶碗に茶葉を淹れることで飲む.西洋世界が茶飲みの旧法に無頓着な理由はヨーロッパが明王朝の末期に初めて茶を知ったという事実によって説明される.

To the latter-day Chinese tea is a delicious beverage, but not an ideal. The long woes of his country have robbed him of the zest for the meaning of life. He has become modern, that is to say, old and disenchanted. he has lost that sublime faith in illusions which constitutes the eternal youth and vigour of the poets and ancients. He is an eclectic and politely accepts the traditions of the universe. He toys with Nature, but does not condescend to conquer or worship her. His Leaf-tea is often wonderful with its flower-like aroma, but the romance of the Tang and Sung ceremonials are not to be found in his cup.

 後世の中国人にとって茶は美味な飲料であったが理想的ではなかった.国の長い悲しみは人生の意味に対する喜びを奪い去った.人々は現代人となった、すなわち、老いて魅力を失った.詩人であった古代人の生気と永遠の若さを構成する幻想に対する崇高な信頼を失ってしまった.人は折衷的であり宇宙の伝統を丁重に受容する.彼は自然と戯れるが、崇めもせず支配しようと恩着せがましいこともしない.茶葉はしばし花の香のように素晴らしいが、唐と宋の茶の湯のロマンスは碗の中に見いだされない.

Japan, which followed closely on the footsteps of Chinese civilisation, has known the tea in all its three stages. As early as the year 729 we read of the Emperor Shomu giving tea to one hundred monks at his palace in Nara. The leaves were probably imported by our ambassadors to the Tang Court and prepared in the way then in fashion. In 801 the monk Saicho brought back some seeds and planted them in Yeisan. Many tea-gardens are heard of in the succeeding centuries, as well as the delight of the aristocracy and priesthood in the beverage. The Sung tea reached us in 1191 with the return of Yeisaizenji, who went there to study the southern Zen school. The new seeds which he carried home were successfully planted in three places, one of which, the Uji district near Kioto, bears still the name of producing the best tea in the world. The southern Zen spread with rapidity, and with it the tea-ritual and the tea-ideal of the Sung. By the fifteenth century, under the patronage of the Shogun, Ashikaga – Yoshimasa, the tea ceremony is fully constituted and made into an independent and secular performance. Since then Teaism is fully established in Japan. The use of the steeped tea of the later China is comparatively recent among us, being only known since the middle of the seventeenth century. It has replaced the powdered tea in ordinary consumption, though the latter still constitutes to hold its place as the teas.

 日本は、中国文明の後をぴったりつけており、その三つの時代全てを知っている.早くも729年に我々は聖武天皇が奈良の宮廷で百人もの僧侶に茶を授けたという記載を見る.茶葉はおそらく遣唐使から持ち込まれ、当時の作法でもてなされたのだろう.801年に僧侶である最澄は茶の種を持ち帰り叡山に植えた.その後数世紀にわたって多くの茶園が拓かれ、茶は貴族と僧侶の愛飲するところとなった.宋の茶は1191年、栄西禅師(明菴栄西)の帰国とともに我々のもとへ渡った.彼が故郷に持ち帰った新しい種子は三箇所に首尾よく植えられ、うち一箇所は京都近郊の宇治であり、世界で最高の茶を生産する名を保っている.南方の禅宗は急速に広まり、それとともに宋での儀式と理想も広まった.十五世紀には将軍足利義政の庇護下で、茶会はすっかり完成し、独立した世俗の催しとなった.以来、茶道は日本で完全に確立された.その後中国の煎茶の使用は、我々の間で比較的新しいものであり、十七世紀の中葉以来初めて知られている.抹茶が茶としての地位を保つことが後もできたにも関わらず、常用の消費には煎茶が抹茶に取って代わっている.

It is in the Japanese tea ceremony that we see the culmination of tea-ideals. Our successful resistance of the Mongol invasion in 1281 had enabled us to carry on the Sung movement so disastrously cut off in China itself through the nomadic inroad. Tea with us became more than an idealisation of the form of drinking; it is a religion of the art of life. The beverage grew to be an excuse for the worship of purity and refinement, a sacred function at which the host and guest joined to produce for that occasion the utmost beatitude of the mundane. The tea-room was an oasis in the dreary waste of existence where weary travellers could meet to drink from the common spring of art-appreciation. The ceremony was an improvised drama whose plot was about the tea, the flowers, and the painting. Not a colour to disturb the tone of the room, not a sound to mar the rhythm of things, not a gesture to obtrude on the harmony, not a word to break the unity of the surroundings, all movements to be performed simply and naturally – such were the aims of the tea ceremony. And strangely enough it was often successful. A subtle philosophy lay behind it all. Teaism was Taoism in disguise.

 茶の理想に到達するのを我々が目の当たりにするのは日本茶においてである.1281年の蒙古襲来をうまく退けたために、我々は、異民族侵入で惨めにも断たれた宋の運動を継続することができたのであった.我々と茶の関係は飲用の形式の理想以上となった.茶は洗練と純真の礼賛に対する口実となり、主人と客が一緒に、俗世の至上の祝福の機会を生みだす神聖な役となった.茶室は疲労した旅行者が集って、芸術鑑賞という共通の泉から喉を潤すため、存在の寂しい荒地のオアシスであった.茶の湯は茶、花々そして絵画についての即興劇であった.部屋の調子を乱す色はなく、事物の旋律を損ねる音はなく、調和を破る動作はなく、周囲の統一感を壊す言葉もなく、あらゆる動作は素朴で自然になされるのである.そういったことが茶会の趣旨であった.そして奇しくも茶会はたいてい上手くいくのだった.かすかな理念はすべてその背後にあった.茶道は道教の姿を変えたものであった.

いつもここまで読んでくださってありがとうございます.亀吾郎法律事務所をよろしくお願いいたします.

The Book of Tea: 5

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 九月になって、少しだけですが秋らしい雲が混ざるようになった気がします.夏らしい巨大な入道雲と並んで、薄くぼんやりした雲が淡い空に遠慮気味に漂うのを見て、秋の僅かな気配を私は感じました.秋の日は釣瓶落としと言いますね.きっとすぐなのでしょうね.何もかも過ぎてゆくのは.こうした雲を別の例えに用いた人がいるようです.それでは陸羽先輩よろしくお願いします.

The fourth chapter is devoted to the enumeration and description of the twenty-four members of the tea-equipage, beginning with the tripod brazier and ending with the bamboo cabinet for containing all these utensils. Here we notice Luwuh’s predilection for Taoist symbolism. Also it is interesting to observe in this connection the influence of tea on Chinese ceramics. The Celestial porcelain, as is well known, had its origin in an attempt to reproduce the exquisite shade of jade, resulting, in the Tang dynasty, in the blue glaze of the south, and the white glaze of the north. Luwuh considered the blue as the ideal colour for the tea-cup, as it lent additional greenness to the beverage, whereas the white made it look pinkish and distasteful. It was because he used cake-tea. Later on, when the tea-masters of Sung took to the powdered tea, they preferred heavy bowls of blue-black and dark brown. The Mings, with their steeped tea, rejoiced in light ware of white porcelain.

 第四章は二十四の茶道具の列挙および説明に割かれており、三脚の火鉢とこれら道具を収める竹製箪笥から始まる.ここに我らは陸羽の道教象徴主義への思い入れを認める.それはまた中国陶器における茶の影響との関係を見て取るに興味深いものである.中国の磁器は、よく知られているように、精巧な翡翠の陰影を生み出す試みにおいて起源を持ち、唐王朝では、南方の青磁、北方の白磁を生み出すこととなった.陸羽は茶碗の理想的な色として青を認めた.それは飲料にさらなる緑を加えるからであり、これが白であると、赤みがさして不味そうに見えてしまうのだった.その理由は彼が団茶を用いたからであった.のちになって、宋の茶道家が抹茶を採用すると、濃藍色と暗褐色の重い器を使うようになった.明朝では煎茶を、白磁の軽い器で大いに楽しんだのであった.

In the fifth chapter Luwuh describes the method of making tea. He eliminates all ingredients except salt. He dwells also on the much-discussed question of the choice of water and the degree of boiling it. According to him, the mountain spring is the best, the river water and the spring water come next in the order of excellence. There are three stages of boiling: the first boil is when the little bubbles like the eye of fishes swim on the surface; the second boil is when the bubbles are crystal beads rolling in a fountain; the third boil is when the billows surge wildly in the kettle. The Cake-tea is roasted before the fire until it becomes soft like a baby’s arm and is shredded into powder between pieces of fine paper. Salt is put in the first boil, the tea in the second. At the third boil, a dipperful of cold water is poured into kettle to settle the tea and revive “youth of the water.” Then the beverage was poured into cups and drunk. O nectar! The filmy leaflet hung like scaly clouds in a serene sky or floated like waterlilies on emerald streams. It was of such a beverage that Lotung, a Tang poet, wrote: “The first cup moistens my lips and throat, the second cup breaks my loneliness, the third cup searches my barren entrail but to find therein some five thousand volumes of odd ideographs. The fourth cup raises a slight perspiration, – all the wrong of life passes away through my pores. At the fifth cup I am purified; the sixth cup calls me to the realms of immortals. The seventh cup – ah, but I could take no more! I only feel the breath of cool wind that rise in my sleeves. Where is Horaisan? Let me ride on this sweet breeze and waft a way thither.”

 第五章で陸羽は茶の点て方を説明する.彼は塩だけを用い他一切の材料を省く.彼は水の選定と沸騰の度合いについて議論の尽きない話題にも詳しく触れる.彼によれば、山の湧き水が一番で、川水と湧水は品質で二番目になるという.沸かし方には三段階あるという.最初の沸騰は魚の眼のような小さな泡が水面を遊ぶ時.次の沸騰は数珠の泡が水晶のように沸き起こるまで、三番目は茶釜の泡吹が荒々とこみ上げる時である.団茶は赤子の腕の柔らかさとなるまで、最初の沸騰で上質な紙の間に挟んでが粉々に切り刻む.塩を第一の沸騰で入れて、茶を二番目の沸騰で入れるのである.三番目の沸騰では柄杓一杯の冷水が急須に注がれ、茶を静め、「水の若さ」を蘇らせる.それから飲物が茶碗に注がれ飲み干される.これぞ甘露.薄ぼんやりと茶葉は穏やかな空に浮かぶ鱗雲、或いは翠玉色の流れに浮かぶ睡蓮のよう.唐の詩人、盧仝が記したのはこのような茶のことだった.「一杯目は唇と喉を潤し二杯目は孤独を癒やし、三杯目、枯れた五臓六腑が探し求めるは五千巻の文字を見出すのみ、四杯目はやや汗を浮かばせ、人生のあらゆる過ちは私の毛孔から消え去ってゆく.五杯目で私は清められる.六杯目で不死の国に招かれ、七杯目、いや、これ以上は飲めない.私は袖に抜ける冷たい風の息吹を感じるのみだ.蓬莱山はどこにあるのだろうか.やさしい微風に乗って、漂い流されるとしよう.(原文は『一碗喉吻潤、二碗破孤悶、三碗搜枯腸、惟有文字五千卷、四碗發輕汗、平生不平事盡向毛孔散、五碗肌骨清、六碗通仙靈、七碗吃不得也、唯覺兩腋習習清風生.蓬萊山、在何處、玉川子乘此清風欲歸去』である)」

The remaining chapters of the “Chaking” treat of the vulgarity of the ordinary methods of tea-drinking, a historical summary of illustrious tea-drinkers, the famous tea plantations of China, possible variations of the tea service and illustrations of the tea-utensils. The last is unfortunately lost.

 「茶経」の残りの章は日常での野暮な茶の飲み方について、著名な茶飲みの詳細な歴史的抄録、中国の有名な茶畑、茶の湯の多様性と茶道具の図を扱っている.最後の章は残念なことに失われている.

The appearance of the “Chaking” must have created considerable sensation at the time. Luwuh was befriended by the Emperor Taisung (763-779), and his fame attracted many followers. Some exquisites were said to have been able to detect the tea made by Luwuh from that of his diciples. One mandarin has his name immortalised by his failure to appreciate the tea of this great master.

 「茶経」の登場は当時、相当な話題を呼んだものに違いない.陸羽は代宗帝(763-779年)の援助を受け、彼の名声は多くの門弟を惹きつけた.通人の中には陸羽の点てた茶と弟子の点てたものを飲み分けることができたと言われる.ある官吏はこの名人の茶を鑑賞できなかったために、永遠に名を記憶されたという.

In the Sung dynasty the whipped tea came into fashion and created the second school of Tea. The leaves were ground to fine powder in a small stone mill, and the preparation was whipped in hot water by a delicate whisk made of split bamboo. The new process led to some change in the tea-equipage of Luwuh, as well as the choice of leaves. Salt was discarded forever. The enthusiasm of the Sung people for a tea knew no bounds. Epicures vied with each other in discovering new varieties, and regular tournaments were held to decide their superiority. The Emperor Liasung(1101-1124). who was too great an artist to be a well-behaved monarch, lavished his treasures on the attainment of rare species. He himself wrote a dissertation on the twenty kinds of tea, among which he prizes the “white tea” as of the rarest and finest quality.

 宋朝には抹茶が流行となり、二番目の茶の流派が生まれた.茶葉は小さな石臼で挽かれ、湯に入れ、竹を割いたきめ細かい小箒で泡立てることで仕立てられた.この新しい手法は茶葉の精選と同じように陸羽の茶の点て方においていくらか変化をもたらした.塩は以来廃止された.宋の人々の茶への熱狂は尽きるところがなかった.通人は互いに競って新たな変わった方法を探し、自分たちの優秀さを決めるべく定例の品評会が行われた.徽宗帝(1101-1124年)は芸術にあまりに優れていたため、君主としてはまともでなかったが、希少な品種の入手に関して彼は私財を惜しまなかった.彼自身も二四種類の茶について品評を記し、その中で彼は最も希少で上質な茶を「白茶」として称賛したのだった.

The Book of Tea: 4

Chapter II 第二章

The Schools of Tea 茶の流派

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TEA is a work of art and needs a master hand to bring out its noblest qualities. We have good and bad tea, as we have good and bad paintings – generally the latter. There is no single recipe for making the perfect tea, as there are no rules for producing a Titian or Sesson. Each preparation of the leaves has its individuality, its special affinity with water and heat, its hereditary memories to recall, its own method of telling a story. The truly beautiful must be always in it. How much do we not suffer through the constant failure of society to recognise this simple and fundamental law of art and life; Lichihlai, a Sung poet, has sadly remarked that there were three most deplorable things in the world: the spoiling of fine youths through false education, the degradation of fine paintings through vulgar admiration, and the utter waste of fine tea through incompetent manipulation.

 茶は芸術でありその最高の質を引き出すためには修練を要する.良い絵と悪い絵があるのと同じように、一般的には後者だが、良い茶があれば悪い茶がある.ティツィアーノや雪村の絵が二つとないように、完璧な茶の点て方というものはない.茶の一回の点て方に個性があり、水と熱との特別な相性があり、世襲の記憶を呼び覚ますものがあり、その物語を紡ぐ方略がある.真なる美は常に内在するものだ.素朴で基本的な芸術と生命の法則を、社会が幾度もその認識を怠ってきために、我々はどれだけ苦しんでいることか.宋の詩人、李竹嬾は世界には三つの嘆かわしいものがあると悲しんだ.誤った教育によって良い若者を役立たずにしてしまうこと.俗悪な鑑賞によって良画の価値を下げること.無粋な手技によって良質な茶をすっかり駄目にしてしまうことである.

Like Art, Tea has its periods and its schools. Its evolution may be roughly divided into three main stages: the Boiled Tea, the Whipped Tea, and the Steeped Tea. We modern belong to the last school. These several methods of appreciating the beverage are indicative of the spirit of the age in which they prevailed. For life is an expression, our unconscious actions the constant betrayal of our innermost thought. Confucius said that “man hideth not.” Perhaps we reveal ourselves too much in small things because we have so little of the great to conceal. The tiny incidents of daily routine are as much a commentary of racial ideals as the highest flight of philosophy or poetry. Even as the difference in favourite vintage marks the separate idiosyncrasies of different periods and nationalities of Europe, so the Tea-ideals characterise the various moods of Oriental culture. The Cake-tea which was boiled, the Powdered-tea which was whipped, Leaf-tea which was steeped, mark the distinct emotional impulses of the Tang, the Sung and the Ming dynasties of China. If we were inclined to borrow the much-abused terminology of art-classification, we might designate them respectively, the Classic, the Romantic, and the Naturalistic schools of Tea.

 芸術のように、茶は時代と流派がある.その発展は大まかに三つの段階に分けられる.餅茶、抹茶、煎茶である.我ら現代人は最後の流派である.飲料を吟味するこれら複数の方法は当時普及した時代の精神を示している.というのは人生は表現であり、我々は無意識の行動は内なる考えに反して必ず現れるからである.孔子は「人いずくんぞ隠さんや(人焉隠哉)」という.おそらく我々は自分たちの些末なことを明示しすぎるのは、隠すべき偉大なものが小さすぎるのである.日々型にはまった些事が、哲学と詩学の最高峰と同じくらいに民族の理想を詳説する.素晴らしい逸品の違いでさえヨーロッパの民族と異なる時代の個々の特異性を述べるのであり、茶の理想は東洋の文化の多彩な様式によって性格が異なる.団茶は煮て、抹茶はかき回され、掩茶は漬け込まれる.それぞれが中国の唐王朝、宋王朝、明王朝の各々の情緒的衝動を示しているのである.我々が芸術の分類のあまりに乱用された用語を借用するとすれば、めいめい、古典派、浪漫派、自然主義派の流派に分けることができよう.

The tea-plant, native of southern China, was known from very early times to Chinese botany and medicine. It is alluded to in the classics under the various names of Tou, Tseh, Chung, Kha, and Ming, and was highly prized for possessing the virtues of relieving fatigue, delighting the soul, strengthening the will, and repairing the eyesight. It was not only administered as an internal dose, but often applied externally in form of paste to alleviate rheumatic pains. The Taoists claimed it as an important ingredient of elixir of immortality. The Buddhists used it extensively to prevent drowsiness during their long hours of meditation.

 茶の木は中国南方が起源とされ、中国の植物学と医学でははるか古来より知られていた.茶は梌、蔎、荈、檟、茗といった様々な名前で古典に述べられている.疲れを癒やし、心を軽くし、意志を強くし、視力を回復する効能で高く評価されていた.内服だけでなく、しばしばリウマチ性疼痛に対して軟膏にして外用薬に用いられたのだ.道教徒は茶を不死の霊薬の重要な原料と主張した.仏教徒は長時間の瞑想の間の眠気覚ましとして茶を広く用いた.

By the fourth and fifth centuries Tea became a favourite beverage among the inhabitants of the Yangtse-Kiang valley. It was about this time that the modern ideograph Cha was coined, evidently a corruption of the classic Tou. The poets of the southern dynasties have left some fragments of their fervent adoration of the “froth of the liquid jade.” Then emperors used bestow some rare preparation of the leaves on their high ministers as a reward for eminent services. Yet the methods of drinking tea at this stage was primitive in the extreme, The leaves were steamed, crushed in a mortar, made into a cake, and boiled together with rice, ginger, salt, orange peel, spices, milk, and sometimes with onions! The custom obtains at the present day among the Thibetaus and various Mongolian tribes, who make a curious syrup of these ingredients. The use of lemon slices by the Russians, who learned to take tea from the Chinese caravansaries, points to the survival of the ancient method.

 四世紀と五世紀には茶は揚子江流域の住人の間で好まれる飲料となった.古代の「梌」の明らかな転訛である、現代の表意文字の「茶」が新造されたのと同じころであった.南方の王朝の詩人は「翡翠液の泡沫」と熱烈な礼賛する詩篇をいくつか残している.それから皇帝たちは勲功に対する報酬として高官らに上物の茶葉を授けた.しかし茶の飲用としての方法は当時は非常に原始的なものであった.茶葉は蒸され、臼で挽かれ、固形にされ、米や生姜、塩、陳皮、香辛料や牛乳、時折玉葱とともに煮るのであった.この慣習は今日のチベット民族やモンゴル民族で行われ、彼らはこれら原材料の不思議な濃縮液を作るのである.ロシア人は中国の隊商から茶の飲み方を学んだのだが、レモンの薄切りを使うのは古代の方法が生き残ってきたことを示している.

It needed the genius of the Tang dynasty to emancipate Tea from its crude state and lead to its final idealisation. With Luwuh in the middle of the eighth century we have our first apostle of tea. He was born in an age when Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism were seeking mutual synthesis. The pantheistic symbolism of the time was urging one to mirror the Universal in the Particular. Luwuh, a poet, saw in the Tea-service the same harmony and order which reigned through all things. In his celebrated work, the “Chaking” (The Holy Scripture of Tea) he formulated the Code of Tea. He has since been worshiped as the tutelary god of the Chinese tea merchants.

 茶がその粗野な状態から解放され、究極の理想に至るために唐王朝は才人を求めた.八世紀の中期に現れた陸羽をもって我々は茶の創始者と言う.彼は仏教、道教そして儒教が相互の融合を模索していた時代に生まれた.時代の汎神論的象徴主義は人が「個別性」のなかで「普遍性」を反映することを請うた.詩人である陸羽は、茶の湯に、万物を統治する調和と秩序と同じものを見出した.彼の著名な業績「茶経(茶の聖典)」の中で彼は「茶道」を体系化した.彼は以来、中国茶の商人の守護神として崇められている.

The “Chaking” consists of three volumes and ten chapters. In the first chapter Luwuh treats of the nature of the tea-plant, in the second of the implements for gathering the leaves, in the third of the selection of the leaves. According to him the best quality of the leaves must have “creases like the leathern boot of Tartar horsemen, curl like the dewlap of a mighty bullock, unfold like a mist rising out of ravine, gleam like a lake touched by zephyr, and be wet and soft like fine earth newly swept by rain.”

 「茶経」は三巻と十章からなる.序章において陸羽は茶の木の性質を扱い、二章で茶葉を集める道具を、三章で茶葉の選定を述べている.彼によれば茶葉の最上の品質は、「タタールの馬人の革靴が襞を作り、屈強な去勢牛の喉袋のように丸め、渓谷から出る霞のように広がり、微風が撫でる湖の輝き、新たに滴る雨によって大地がきめ細かくなるように湿り柔らかくなる」ものでなければならない.

 いつも最後まで読んでくださってありがとうございます.これっていつまで続くの?と思う読者の方、この翻訳は最後までやるつもりです.ですが、途中休み休みやろうと思っています.中国語のラテン文字化を翻訳するのは難しいですね!

*李竹嬾は明の詩人だそうです.

The Book of Tea: 3

Chaper I 第一章

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The earliest record of tea in European writing is said to be found in the statement of an Arabian traveller, that after the year 879 the main sources of revenue in Canton were the duties on salt and tea. Marco Polo records the deposition of a Chinese minister of finance in 1285 for his arbitrary augmentation of the tea-taxes. It was at the period of the great discoveries that the European people began to know more about the extreme Orient. At the end of the sixteenth century the Hollanders brought the news that a pleasant drink was in the East from the leaves of a bush. The travellers Giovanni Batista Ramusio (1559), L. Almeida (1576), Maffeno (1588), Tareira (1610), also mentioned tea. 1 In the last-named year ships of the Dutch East India Company brought the first tea into Europe. It was known in France in 1636, and reached Russia in 1638.2 England welcomed it in 1650 and spoke of it as “That excellent and by all physicians approved China drink, called by the Chineans Tcha, and by other nations Tay, alias Tee.

 ヨーロッパの著作において茶の最も古い記録はアラビア人旅行者の著述とされ、879年以後には広東の主な財源は塩と茶に課せられる税であった.マルコ・ポーロは1285年に中国の財務大臣が茶税の独占的増税によって罷免されたという記録を残している.ヨーロッパの人々が極東についてより知ろうとし始めたのは大いなる発見の時であった.十六世紀の終わりにはオランダ人らが東洋には面白い飲み物が灌木の葉から採れるという知らせを持ち込んだ.旅行家のジョヴァンニ・バティスタ・ラムジオ(1559年)、L.アルメイダ(1576年)、マッフェノ(1588年)、タレイラ(1610年)らも言及した.オランダ東インド会社の船が初めて茶をヨーロッパに持ち込んだ.フランスでは1636年のこと、ロシアには1638年に持ち込まれた.英国は1650年に迎え入れ、「かの素晴らしき、医者も異口同音に良しとする中国の飲料、これを中国人はチャと呼び、他国ではテイ、またの名をテーと呼ぶ」と評した.

Like all the good things of the world, the propaganda of Tea met with opposition. Heretics like Henry Saville (1678) denounced drinking it as a filthy custom. Jonas Hanway (Essay on Tea, 1756) said that men seemed to lose their stature and comeliness, women their beauty through the use of tea. Its cost at the start (about fifteen or sixteen shillings a pound) forbade popular consumption, and made it “regalia for high treatments and entertainments, presents being made thereof to princes and grandees.” Yet in spite of such drawbacks tea-drinking spread with marvellous rapidity. The coffee-houses of London in the early half of the eighteenth century became, in fact, tea-houses, the resort of wits like Addison and Steele, who beguiled themselves over their “dish of tea.” The beverage soon became a necessary of life – a taxable matter. We are reminded in this connection what an important part it plays in modern history. Colonial America resigned herself to oppression until human endurance gave way before the heavy duties laid on Tea. American independence dates from the throwing of tea-chests into Boston harbour.

 世界のあらゆる名品と同じくして、茶の宣伝は抵抗にあった.ヘンリー・サヴィル(1678年)のような異端者は喫茶は汚らわしい慣習だと非難した.ジョナス・ハンウェイ(『茶論』、1756年)は茶の飲用は男の背丈を低くし気品を損ない、女の美しさを失うと述べている.当初の茶の価格は(1ポンドあたり15、16シリング)高価で大衆の消費は適わず、「上級の厚遇と享楽に対する御用品、王妃と王侯向けの贈品」とされた.しかしそうした欠点にも関わらず、茶の飲用は凄まじく普及した.十八世紀前半世紀のロンドンコーヒーハウスは、事実上の喫茶店となりアディソンやスティール、お茶で憂さ晴らしをする才人の拠り所となった.茶はすぐに課税に値するほどの生活必需となった.我々はこれに関連して、茶が現代の歴史に重要な役割を担うのだということを思い起こさせられる.植民地アメリカは英国の弾圧に甘んじていたが、茶に重税が課せられるや、人の忍耐がこれ以上耐えきれぬものとなった.アメリカの独立はボストン港に茶の箱が投げ込まれる日から始まったのである.

There is a subtle charm in the taste of tea which makes it irresistible and capable of idealisation. Western humourists were not slow to mingle the fragrance of their thought with its aroma. It has not the arrogance of wine, the self-consciousness of coffee, nor the simpering innocence of cocoa. Already in 1711, says the Spectator: “I would therefore in a particular manner recommend these may speculations to all well-regulated families that set apart an hour every morning for tea, bread and butter; and would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up and to be looked upon as a part of the tea-equipage.” Samuel Johnson draws his own portrait as “a hardened and shameless tea-drinker, who for twenty years diluted his meals with only the infusion of the fascinating plant; who with tea amused the evening, with tea solaced the midnight, and with tea welcomed the morning.”

 茶の味は仄かな魅力を漂わせ、人は茶に惹かれざるを得ない.またこれを理想とする.西洋の批評家らがその薫香と思索にまとう香気を融合させるのに時間はかからなかった.茶にワインのもつ傲慢さ、コーヒーの自意識ぶり、ココアの無邪気な薄笑いはない.1711年、スペクテイター紙は次のように述べる.「それゆえ毎朝一時間かけてお茶とバター付きパンの食事を召し上がるどの立派なご家庭にもこの考えを勧め、本紙を注文いただき茶の用品の一つとして定期的に備えていただくことを切に願うものである.」サミュエル・ジョンソンは自分の肖像にこう記している.「頑迷で恥知らずの茶飲みで、珍奇な草木を煎じたもので二十年もの間、食事を薄めてきたのだ.夕餉を楽しみ、夜中の癒やしに、朝の歓待に茶を備えてきたのだ.」

Charles Lamb, a professed devotee, sounded the true note of Teaism when he wrote that the greatest pleasure he knew was to do a good action by stealth, and to have found it out by accident. For Teaism is the art of concealing beauty that you may discover it, of suggesting what you dare not reveal. It is the noble secret of laughing at yourself, calmly yet thoroughly. All genuine humorists may in this sense be called tea-philosophers, – Thackeray, for instance, and, of course, Shakespeare. The poets of the Decadence(when was not the world in decadence?), in their protests against materialism, have, to a certain extent, also opened the way to Teaism. Perhaps nowadays it is our demure contemplation of the Imperfect that the West and the East can meet in mutual consolation.

 チャールズ・ラムは熱心な愛好家であったが、自分の知る最大の喜びとは密かに善行を為し、偶然それが現れるときだ、と記した彼の言葉に茶道の精髄を感ずる.つまり茶道とは美を見つけようとするべく美しさを隠す技芸であり、あえて明かみに出すものを仄めかす技である.茶道は厳かに、しかし徹底して自身を笑う高貴な秘技である.そうした意味で真に機知に富んだ人々は茶の解脱者と呼ばれるだろう.例えば、サッカレー、そしてもちろん、シェイクスピアである.唯物主義への抵抗において、退廃期の詩人ら(堕落しなかった世界がいつあっただろうか)が確かな範囲で、茶道にも道を拓いたのである.おそらく今日、「不完全性」を真摯に熟考することが西洋と東洋の互いの慰めになりうるのだ.

The Taoists relate that at the great beginning of the No-Beginning, Spirit and Matter met in mortal combat. At last the Yellow Emperor, the Sun of Heaven, triumphed over Shuhyung, the demon of darkness and earth. The Titan, in his death agony, struck his head against the solar vault and shivered the blue dome of jade into fragments. The stars lost their nests, the moon wandered aimlessly among the wild chasms of the night. In despair the Yellow Emperor sought far and wide for the repairer of the Heavens. He had not to search in vain. Out of the Eastern sea rose a queen, the divine Niuka, horncrowned and dragon-tailed, resplendent in her armour of fire. She welded the five-coloured rainbow in her magic cauldron and rebuilt the Chinese sky. But it is also told that Niuka forgot to fill two tiny cervices in the blue firmament. Thus began the dualism of love – two souls rolling through space and never at rest until they join together to complete the universe. Everyone has to build anew his sky of hope and peace.

 道教を信ずる人々は「無始」の大いなる始まりにおいて「霊」と「物」が死闘を繰り広げたのだという.そして日輪黄帝は闇と地上の鬼神である祝融に打ち勝った.その巨人は死苦に悶え、太陽の天蓋に頭を打ち、蒼穹を震わせ、翡翠の欠片となって散った.星々は拠り所をなくし、月は夜の荒涼たる裂け目の中で当てもなく彷徨うようになった.黄帝は必死に天上を直そうと隈無く探し求めた.それは徒労ではなかった.東方の海の彼方から角を頭に戴き、龍尾を持ち、煌めく炎の鎧を纏った聖なる女皇、女媧が生まれた.彼女は魔法の大釜で五色の虹を繋ぎ、中国の空を修復したのだ.しかし蒼穹に二つの小さな裂け目を埋めることを失念したと言われている.こうして愛の二元性が始まったという.二つの霊魂が空間を彷徨い二つが一緒になって宇宙が完成するまで休まることがないのだ.誰しもが各人の希望と平和を空に新たに描かねばならない.

The heaven of modern humanity is indeed shattered world in the Cyclopean struggle for wealth and power. The world is groping in the shadow of egotism and vulgarity. Knowledge is bought through a bad conscience, benevolence practised for the sake of utility. The East and West, like two dragons tossed in a sea of ferment, in vain strive to regain the jewel of life. We need a Niuka again to repair the grand devastations; we await the great Avater. Meanwhile, let us have a sip of tea. The afternoon glow is brightening the bamboos, the fountains are bubbling with delight, the soughing of the pines is heard in our kettles. Let us dream of evanescence, and linger in the beautiful foolishness of things.

 現代の人類にとっての天はなるほど、富と力をめぐる巨人キュプロクス的闘争の中で微塵に砕け散った世界である.世界は利己と野卑の闇の中を手探りで彷徨うのである.知識は悪意を通じてもたらされ、博愛は功利の為に行われる.東洋と西洋は、生命の輝きを再び得ようと無意味に足掻く、荒ぶる海で揺蕩う二頭の龍のようだ.我々は大いなる荒廃を修復するために再び女媧を必要としている.偉大なアヴァターの降臨を待っているのだ.さてその間に茶でも一服しようか.午後の日差しは竹林を照らし、泉は喜びに満ちて湧き出て、茶釜から松濤が聞こえてくる.儚い夢を見ようではないか、万物の美しく愚かなものの中で物思いに耽ろうではないか.

1. Paul Krannsel: Dissertations, Berlin, 1902.

2. Mercurius: Politics, 1656.

 これで第一章はおしまいですが、全部で七章ありますからまだまだ続きます.皆さんは英文と邦訳を照らして、天心が文章に込めた気概を感じることはできるでしょうか.拙訳ですが少しでも天心の才覚を感じ取っていただければ嬉しい限りです.松の木のざわめきを松籟と言うのは知りませんでした.日本語って痒いところに手が届くような信じられないくらいリーチの長さがありますよね.

The Book of Tea: 2

Chapter I 第一章

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こんにちは.前回の翻訳はこちらからどうぞ.今回も翻訳になります.岡倉先生、キレキレですね.

Why not amuse yourselves at our expense? Asia would returns the compliment. There would be further food for merriment if you were to know all that we have imagined and written about you. All the glamour of the perspective is there, all the unconscious homage of wonder, all the silent resentment of the new and undefined. You have been loaded with virtues too refined to be envied, and accused of crimes too picturesque to be condemned. Our writers in the past – the wise men who knew – informed us that you had bushy tails somewhere hidden in your garments, and often dined off a fricassée of newborn babes! Nay, we had something worse against you: we used to think you the most impracticable people on the earth, for you were said to preach what you never practised.

 諸君は我々を肴にして内輪で楽しめばよろしい.アジアもお返しさせていただこう.我々があなた方について想像し記すところすべてを理解したのならば、さらに面白い話の種があるだろう.遠くにあるものが華やかに見え、不可思議なものに対して無意識のうちに敬意を抱き、新しさと不確かなものに対する静かなる怒りを抱くといったわけだ.あなた方は嫉妬されるほど洗練された美徳を背負い、咎められるほどに鮮烈な罪を告発されているのだ.我が国の過去の文人、我々の知る賢人達のことだが、彼らが言うところによれば、あなた方は衣服のどこかにもじゃもじゃのしっぽを隠し持っていて、赤ん坊の細切れ料理をしばし食するのだという.否、我々はあなた方に対してもっとひどいことを考えていた.あなた方はこの地上で最も使い物にならぬ人々である.というのはあなた方は有言不実行とされているからである.

Such misconceptions are fast vanishing amongst us. Commerce has forced the European tongues on many an Eastern port. Asiatic youths are flocking to Western colleges for the equipment of modern education. Our insight does not penetrate your culture deeply, but at least we are willing to learn. Some of my compatriots have adopted too much of your customs and too much of your etiquette, in the delusion that the acquisition of stiff collars and tall silk hats comprised the attainment of your civilisation. Pathetic and deplorable as such affectations are, they evince our willingness to approach the West on our knees. Unfortunately the Western attitude is unfavourable to the understanding of the East. The Christian missionary goes to impart, but not to receive. Your information is based on the meagre translations of our immense literature, if not on the unreliable anecdotes of passing travellers. It is rarely that the chivalrous pen of a Lafcadio Hearn or that of the author of “The Web of Indian Life” enlivens the Oriental darkness with the touch of our own sentiments.

 そういった誤った認識は我々の間で早くも消えつつある.いくつもの東洋の港では商売のために西洋の言葉が用いられてくるようになった.アジアの若者は現代教育を身につけるべく西洋の学校に集っている.我々の眼差しはあなた方の文化を深く徹するものではないが、少なくとも我々は喜んで理解しようと思っている.堅い襟を正し、シルクハットを身につけることがあなた方のいう文明化だという迷妄を抱いている、我らの中にはあなた方の慣習や作法にあまりにも適合し過ぎてしまったものもいるのだ.そうした親しみは哀れみ悲しむべきではあるが、彼らが跪いて西洋に近づこうとする、我々の意欲の現れでもある.残念なことに西洋の態度というのは東洋の理解には不都合なものである.キリスト教の伝道師は説教はするくせに教えは請わない.あなたたちの情報というのは行きすがりの旅行者の信用ならない笑い話でなければ、我々の膨大な文学のごくわずかな翻訳である.ラフカディオ・ハーンが勇猛なる筆先を振るうことや、あるいは「インド生活の数々」の著者が自らの手で東洋世界の闇を照らすことは珍しい例である.

Perhaps I betray my own ignorance of Tea Cult by being so outspoken. Its very spirit of politeness exacts that you say what you are expected to say, and no more. But I am not to be a polite Teaist. So much harm has been done already by the mutual misunderstanding of the New World and the Old, that one need not apologise for contributing his tithe to the furtherance of a better understanding. The beginning of the twentieth century would have been spared the spectacle of sanguinary warfare if Russia had condescended to know Japan better. What dire consequences to humanity lie in the contemptuous ignoring of Eastern problems! European imperialism, which does not disdain to raise the absurd cry of the Yellow Peril, fails to realise that Asia may also awaken to the cruel sense of the White Disaster. You may laugh at us for having “too much tea,” but may we not suspect you of the West have “no tea” in your constitution?

 ひょっとすると歯に衣着せぬ物言いのために茶道への私の無知が知れてしまうやもしれぬ.茶道の高雅な精神とはあなた方の期待することを述べ、それ以外は言わないのである.しかし私は高雅な茶人になろうとするものではない.新旧世界の相互の誤解によって大変な危害が既に生じてしまっているので、両者のより良い理解促進のため些か貢献するのを全く弁解するつもりはない.もしロシアが日本をよく知ろうと謙っていれば、二十世紀初頭に血なまぐさい戦争を目撃することは免れたであろう.東洋の問題を蔑ろとし顧みないのであれば、なんと凄惨な結果を人類に及ぼしたものか.ヨーロッパの帝国主義、馬鹿げた黄禍論を掲げ蔑むことを恥じず、アジアもが白禍という悍ましさに目覚めるかもしれないことに気づいていないのである.あなた方は「茶目っ気がありすぎる」と我々を笑うかもしれないが、あなた方西洋はその性質に「茶目っ気がない」ではないか.

Let us stop the continents from hurling epigrams at each other, and be sadder if not wiser by the mutual gain of half a hemisphere. We have developed along different lines, but there is no reason why one should not supplement the other. You have gained expansion at the cost of restlessness; we have created a harmony which is weak against aggression. Will you believe it? – the East is better off in some respects than the West!

 互いに大陸から警句を投げ合うのを止めにして、両者に得る所があれば賢くなくとも悲しみの情をもとうではないか.我々は異なる道を歩んできたが、一方が他方を補ってはならない理由がどこにあろう.平安のなさを対価にあなた方は領土を拡大してきた.我々は攻勢に対し脆い調和を生み出してきた.信じてもらえるか.西洋よりも東洋はある種勝っているのだと.

Strangely enough humanity has so far met in the tea-cup. It is the only Asiatic ceremonial which commands universal esteem. The white man has scoffed at our religion and our morals, but has accepted the brown beverage without hesitation. The afternoon tea is now an important function in Western society. In the delicate clatter of trays and saucers, in the soft rustle of feminine hospitality, in the common catechism about cream and sugar, we know that the Worship of Tea is established beyond question. The philosophic resignation of the guest to the fate awaiting him in the dubious decoction proclaims that in this single instance the Oriental spirit reigns supreme.

 不思議なことに東西の人情はかくも茶碗で出会うのである.茶道は全世界への敬意を司る唯一のアジアの儀式である.白人は我々の宗教と精神を嘲けてきたが、ためらうことなく褐色の飲料を口にするではないか.午後の喫茶は今や西洋社会で重要な役割を担う.盆や受け皿の触れる繊細な音や女性のせっせと給仕する所作に、クリームと砂糖についてのありふれた問答に、「茶の崇拝」が疑いの余地なく確立したことを我々は知っている.客人が運命に諦観して、煎じた茶の味を待つという哲学的忍従、この一例にも東洋の精神が究極に優越するのである.

いつもありがとうございます.