The Book of Tea: 5

Photo by Mabel Amber on Pexels.com

 九月になって、少しだけですが秋らしい雲が混ざるようになった気がします.夏らしい巨大な入道雲と並んで、薄くぼんやりした雲が淡い空に遠慮気味に漂うのを見て、秋の僅かな気配を私は感じました.秋の日は釣瓶落としと言いますね.きっとすぐなのでしょうね.何もかも過ぎてゆくのは.こうした雲を別の例えに用いた人がいるようです.それでは陸羽先輩よろしくお願いします.

The fourth chapter is devoted to the enumeration and description of the twenty-four members of the tea-equipage, beginning with the tripod brazier and ending with the bamboo cabinet for containing all these utensils. Here we notice Luwuh’s predilection for Taoist symbolism. Also it is interesting to observe in this connection the influence of tea on Chinese ceramics. The Celestial porcelain, as is well known, had its origin in an attempt to reproduce the exquisite shade of jade, resulting, in the Tang dynasty, in the blue glaze of the south, and the white glaze of the north. Luwuh considered the blue as the ideal colour for the tea-cup, as it lent additional greenness to the beverage, whereas the white made it look pinkish and distasteful. It was because he used cake-tea. Later on, when the tea-masters of Sung took to the powdered tea, they preferred heavy bowls of blue-black and dark brown. The Mings, with their steeped tea, rejoiced in light ware of white porcelain.

 第四章は二十四の茶道具の列挙および説明に割かれており、三脚の火鉢とこれら道具を収める竹製箪笥から始まる.ここに我らは陸羽の道教象徴主義への思い入れを認める.それはまた中国陶器における茶の影響との関係を見て取るに興味深いものである.中国の磁器は、よく知られているように、精巧な翡翠の陰影を生み出す試みにおいて起源を持ち、唐王朝では、南方の青磁、北方の白磁を生み出すこととなった.陸羽は茶碗の理想的な色として青を認めた.それは飲料にさらなる緑を加えるからであり、これが白であると、赤みがさして不味そうに見えてしまうのだった.その理由は彼が団茶を用いたからであった.のちになって、宋の茶道家が抹茶を採用すると、濃藍色と暗褐色の重い器を使うようになった.明朝では煎茶を、白磁の軽い器で大いに楽しんだのであった.

In the fifth chapter Luwuh describes the method of making tea. He eliminates all ingredients except salt. He dwells also on the much-discussed question of the choice of water and the degree of boiling it. According to him, the mountain spring is the best, the river water and the spring water come next in the order of excellence. There are three stages of boiling: the first boil is when the little bubbles like the eye of fishes swim on the surface; the second boil is when the bubbles are crystal beads rolling in a fountain; the third boil is when the billows surge wildly in the kettle. The Cake-tea is roasted before the fire until it becomes soft like a baby’s arm and is shredded into powder between pieces of fine paper. Salt is put in the first boil, the tea in the second. At the third boil, a dipperful of cold water is poured into kettle to settle the tea and revive “youth of the water.” Then the beverage was poured into cups and drunk. O nectar! The filmy leaflet hung like scaly clouds in a serene sky or floated like waterlilies on emerald streams. It was of such a beverage that Lotung, a Tang poet, wrote: “The first cup moistens my lips and throat, the second cup breaks my loneliness, the third cup searches my barren entrail but to find therein some five thousand volumes of odd ideographs. The fourth cup raises a slight perspiration, – all the wrong of life passes away through my pores. At the fifth cup I am purified; the sixth cup calls me to the realms of immortals. The seventh cup – ah, but I could take no more! I only feel the breath of cool wind that rise in my sleeves. Where is Horaisan? Let me ride on this sweet breeze and waft a way thither.”

 第五章で陸羽は茶の点て方を説明する.彼は塩だけを用い他一切の材料を省く.彼は水の選定と沸騰の度合いについて議論の尽きない話題にも詳しく触れる.彼によれば、山の湧き水が一番で、川水と湧水は品質で二番目になるという.沸かし方には三段階あるという.最初の沸騰は魚の眼のような小さな泡が水面を遊ぶ時.次の沸騰は数珠の泡が水晶のように沸き起こるまで、三番目は茶釜の泡吹が荒々とこみ上げる時である.団茶は赤子の腕の柔らかさとなるまで、最初の沸騰で上質な紙の間に挟んでが粉々に切り刻む.塩を第一の沸騰で入れて、茶を二番目の沸騰で入れるのである.三番目の沸騰では柄杓一杯の冷水が急須に注がれ、茶を静め、「水の若さ」を蘇らせる.それから飲物が茶碗に注がれ飲み干される.これぞ甘露.薄ぼんやりと茶葉は穏やかな空に浮かぶ鱗雲、或いは翠玉色の流れに浮かぶ睡蓮のよう.唐の詩人、盧仝が記したのはこのような茶のことだった.「一杯目は唇と喉を潤し二杯目は孤独を癒やし、三杯目、枯れた五臓六腑が探し求めるは五千巻の文字を見出すのみ、四杯目はやや汗を浮かばせ、人生のあらゆる過ちは私の毛孔から消え去ってゆく.五杯目で私は清められる.六杯目で不死の国に招かれ、七杯目、いや、これ以上は飲めない.私は袖に抜ける冷たい風の息吹を感じるのみだ.蓬莱山はどこにあるのだろうか.やさしい微風に乗って、漂い流されるとしよう.(原文は『一碗喉吻潤、二碗破孤悶、三碗搜枯腸、惟有文字五千卷、四碗發輕汗、平生不平事盡向毛孔散、五碗肌骨清、六碗通仙靈、七碗吃不得也、唯覺兩腋習習清風生.蓬萊山、在何處、玉川子乘此清風欲歸去』である)」

The remaining chapters of the “Chaking” treat of the vulgarity of the ordinary methods of tea-drinking, a historical summary of illustrious tea-drinkers, the famous tea plantations of China, possible variations of the tea service and illustrations of the tea-utensils. The last is unfortunately lost.

 「茶経」の残りの章は日常での野暮な茶の飲み方について、著名な茶飲みの詳細な歴史的抄録、中国の有名な茶畑、茶の湯の多様性と茶道具の図を扱っている.最後の章は残念なことに失われている.

The appearance of the “Chaking” must have created considerable sensation at the time. Luwuh was befriended by the Emperor Taisung (763-779), and his fame attracted many followers. Some exquisites were said to have been able to detect the tea made by Luwuh from that of his diciples. One mandarin has his name immortalised by his failure to appreciate the tea of this great master.

 「茶経」の登場は当時、相当な話題を呼んだものに違いない.陸羽は代宗帝(763-779年)の援助を受け、彼の名声は多くの門弟を惹きつけた.通人の中には陸羽の点てた茶と弟子の点てたものを飲み分けることができたと言われる.ある官吏はこの名人の茶を鑑賞できなかったために、永遠に名を記憶されたという.

In the Sung dynasty the whipped tea came into fashion and created the second school of Tea. The leaves were ground to fine powder in a small stone mill, and the preparation was whipped in hot water by a delicate whisk made of split bamboo. The new process led to some change in the tea-equipage of Luwuh, as well as the choice of leaves. Salt was discarded forever. The enthusiasm of the Sung people for a tea knew no bounds. Epicures vied with each other in discovering new varieties, and regular tournaments were held to decide their superiority. The Emperor Liasung(1101-1124). who was too great an artist to be a well-behaved monarch, lavished his treasures on the attainment of rare species. He himself wrote a dissertation on the twenty kinds of tea, among which he prizes the “white tea” as of the rarest and finest quality.

 宋朝には抹茶が流行となり、二番目の茶の流派が生まれた.茶葉は小さな石臼で挽かれ、湯に入れ、竹を割いたきめ細かい小箒で泡立てることで仕立てられた.この新しい手法は茶葉の精選と同じように陸羽の茶の点て方においていくらか変化をもたらした.塩は以来廃止された.宋の人々の茶への熱狂は尽きるところがなかった.通人は互いに競って新たな変わった方法を探し、自分たちの優秀さを決めるべく定例の品評会が行われた.徽宗帝(1101-1124年)は芸術にあまりに優れていたため、君主としてはまともでなかったが、希少な品種の入手に関して彼は私財を惜しまなかった.彼自身も二四種類の茶について品評を記し、その中で彼は最も希少で上質な茶を「白茶」として称賛したのだった.

The Book of Tea: 4

Chapter II 第二章

The Schools of Tea 茶の流派

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

TEA is a work of art and needs a master hand to bring out its noblest qualities. We have good and bad tea, as we have good and bad paintings – generally the latter. There is no single recipe for making the perfect tea, as there are no rules for producing a Titian or Sesson. Each preparation of the leaves has its individuality, its special affinity with water and heat, its hereditary memories to recall, its own method of telling a story. The truly beautiful must be always in it. How much do we not suffer through the constant failure of society to recognise this simple and fundamental law of art and life; Lichihlai, a Sung poet, has sadly remarked that there were three most deplorable things in the world: the spoiling of fine youths through false education, the degradation of fine paintings through vulgar admiration, and the utter waste of fine tea through incompetent manipulation.

 茶は芸術でありその最高の質を引き出すためには修練を要する.良い絵と悪い絵があるのと同じように、一般的には後者だが、良い茶があれば悪い茶がある.ティツィアーノや雪村の絵が二つとないように、完璧な茶の点て方というものはない.茶の一回の点て方に個性があり、水と熱との特別な相性があり、世襲の記憶を呼び覚ますものがあり、その物語を紡ぐ方略がある.真なる美は常に内在するものだ.素朴で基本的な芸術と生命の法則を、社会が幾度もその認識を怠ってきために、我々はどれだけ苦しんでいることか.宋の詩人、李竹嬾は世界には三つの嘆かわしいものがあると悲しんだ.誤った教育によって良い若者を役立たずにしてしまうこと.俗悪な鑑賞によって良画の価値を下げること.無粋な手技によって良質な茶をすっかり駄目にしてしまうことである.

Like Art, Tea has its periods and its schools. Its evolution may be roughly divided into three main stages: the Boiled Tea, the Whipped Tea, and the Steeped Tea. We modern belong to the last school. These several methods of appreciating the beverage are indicative of the spirit of the age in which they prevailed. For life is an expression, our unconscious actions the constant betrayal of our innermost thought. Confucius said that “man hideth not.” Perhaps we reveal ourselves too much in small things because we have so little of the great to conceal. The tiny incidents of daily routine are as much a commentary of racial ideals as the highest flight of philosophy or poetry. Even as the difference in favourite vintage marks the separate idiosyncrasies of different periods and nationalities of Europe, so the Tea-ideals characterise the various moods of Oriental culture. The Cake-tea which was boiled, the Powdered-tea which was whipped, Leaf-tea which was steeped, mark the distinct emotional impulses of the Tang, the Sung and the Ming dynasties of China. If we were inclined to borrow the much-abused terminology of art-classification, we might designate them respectively, the Classic, the Romantic, and the Naturalistic schools of Tea.

 芸術のように、茶は時代と流派がある.その発展は大まかに三つの段階に分けられる.餅茶、抹茶、煎茶である.我ら現代人は最後の流派である.飲料を吟味するこれら複数の方法は当時普及した時代の精神を示している.というのは人生は表現であり、我々は無意識の行動は内なる考えに反して必ず現れるからである.孔子は「人いずくんぞ隠さんや(人焉隠哉)」という.おそらく我々は自分たちの些末なことを明示しすぎるのは、隠すべき偉大なものが小さすぎるのである.日々型にはまった些事が、哲学と詩学の最高峰と同じくらいに民族の理想を詳説する.素晴らしい逸品の違いでさえヨーロッパの民族と異なる時代の個々の特異性を述べるのであり、茶の理想は東洋の文化の多彩な様式によって性格が異なる.団茶は煮て、抹茶はかき回され、掩茶は漬け込まれる.それぞれが中国の唐王朝、宋王朝、明王朝の各々の情緒的衝動を示しているのである.我々が芸術の分類のあまりに乱用された用語を借用するとすれば、めいめい、古典派、浪漫派、自然主義派の流派に分けることができよう.

The tea-plant, native of southern China, was known from very early times to Chinese botany and medicine. It is alluded to in the classics under the various names of Tou, Tseh, Chung, Kha, and Ming, and was highly prized for possessing the virtues of relieving fatigue, delighting the soul, strengthening the will, and repairing the eyesight. It was not only administered as an internal dose, but often applied externally in form of paste to alleviate rheumatic pains. The Taoists claimed it as an important ingredient of elixir of immortality. The Buddhists used it extensively to prevent drowsiness during their long hours of meditation.

 茶の木は中国南方が起源とされ、中国の植物学と医学でははるか古来より知られていた.茶は梌、蔎、荈、檟、茗といった様々な名前で古典に述べられている.疲れを癒やし、心を軽くし、意志を強くし、視力を回復する効能で高く評価されていた.内服だけでなく、しばしばリウマチ性疼痛に対して軟膏にして外用薬に用いられたのだ.道教徒は茶を不死の霊薬の重要な原料と主張した.仏教徒は長時間の瞑想の間の眠気覚ましとして茶を広く用いた.

By the fourth and fifth centuries Tea became a favourite beverage among the inhabitants of the Yangtse-Kiang valley. It was about this time that the modern ideograph Cha was coined, evidently a corruption of the classic Tou. The poets of the southern dynasties have left some fragments of their fervent adoration of the “froth of the liquid jade.” Then emperors used bestow some rare preparation of the leaves on their high ministers as a reward for eminent services. Yet the methods of drinking tea at this stage was primitive in the extreme, The leaves were steamed, crushed in a mortar, made into a cake, and boiled together with rice, ginger, salt, orange peel, spices, milk, and sometimes with onions! The custom obtains at the present day among the Thibetaus and various Mongolian tribes, who make a curious syrup of these ingredients. The use of lemon slices by the Russians, who learned to take tea from the Chinese caravansaries, points to the survival of the ancient method.

 四世紀と五世紀には茶は揚子江流域の住人の間で好まれる飲料となった.古代の「梌」の明らかな転訛である、現代の表意文字の「茶」が新造されたのと同じころであった.南方の王朝の詩人は「翡翠液の泡沫」と熱烈な礼賛する詩篇をいくつか残している.それから皇帝たちは勲功に対する報酬として高官らに上物の茶葉を授けた.しかし茶の飲用としての方法は当時は非常に原始的なものであった.茶葉は蒸され、臼で挽かれ、固形にされ、米や生姜、塩、陳皮、香辛料や牛乳、時折玉葱とともに煮るのであった.この慣習は今日のチベット民族やモンゴル民族で行われ、彼らはこれら原材料の不思議な濃縮液を作るのである.ロシア人は中国の隊商から茶の飲み方を学んだのだが、レモンの薄切りを使うのは古代の方法が生き残ってきたことを示している.

It needed the genius of the Tang dynasty to emancipate Tea from its crude state and lead to its final idealisation. With Luwuh in the middle of the eighth century we have our first apostle of tea. He was born in an age when Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism were seeking mutual synthesis. The pantheistic symbolism of the time was urging one to mirror the Universal in the Particular. Luwuh, a poet, saw in the Tea-service the same harmony and order which reigned through all things. In his celebrated work, the “Chaking” (The Holy Scripture of Tea) he formulated the Code of Tea. He has since been worshiped as the tutelary god of the Chinese tea merchants.

 茶がその粗野な状態から解放され、究極の理想に至るために唐王朝は才人を求めた.八世紀の中期に現れた陸羽をもって我々は茶の創始者と言う.彼は仏教、道教そして儒教が相互の融合を模索していた時代に生まれた.時代の汎神論的象徴主義は人が「個別性」のなかで「普遍性」を反映することを請うた.詩人である陸羽は、茶の湯に、万物を統治する調和と秩序と同じものを見出した.彼の著名な業績「茶経(茶の聖典)」の中で彼は「茶道」を体系化した.彼は以来、中国茶の商人の守護神として崇められている.

The “Chaking” consists of three volumes and ten chapters. In the first chapter Luwuh treats of the nature of the tea-plant, in the second of the implements for gathering the leaves, in the third of the selection of the leaves. According to him the best quality of the leaves must have “creases like the leathern boot of Tartar horsemen, curl like the dewlap of a mighty bullock, unfold like a mist rising out of ravine, gleam like a lake touched by zephyr, and be wet and soft like fine earth newly swept by rain.”

 「茶経」は三巻と十章からなる.序章において陸羽は茶の木の性質を扱い、二章で茶葉を集める道具を、三章で茶葉の選定を述べている.彼によれば茶葉の最上の品質は、「タタールの馬人の革靴が襞を作り、屈強な去勢牛の喉袋のように丸め、渓谷から出る霞のように広がり、微風が撫でる湖の輝き、新たに滴る雨によって大地がきめ細かくなるように湿り柔らかくなる」ものでなければならない.

 いつも最後まで読んでくださってありがとうございます.これっていつまで続くの?と思う読者の方、この翻訳は最後までやるつもりです.ですが、途中休み休みやろうと思っています.中国語のラテン文字化を翻訳するのは難しいですね!

*李竹嬾は明の詩人だそうです.