The Book of Tea: 9

wood logs on fire
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The Vacuum

But the chief contribution of Taoism to Asiatic life has been in the realm of aesthetics. Chinese historians have always spoken of Taoism as the “art of being in the world,” for it deals with the present – ourselves. It is in us that God meets with Nature, and yesterday parts from to-morrow. The Present is the moving Infinity, the legitimate sphere of the Relative. Relativity seeks Adjustment; Adjustment is Art. The art of life lies in a constant readjustment to our surroundings. Taoism accepts the mundane as it is and, unlike the Confucians and the Buddhists, tries to find beauty in our world of woe and worry. The Sung allegory of the Three Vinegar Tasters explains admirably the trend of the three doctrines. Sakyamuni, Confucius, and Laotse once stood before a jar of vinegar- the emblem of life- and each dipped in his finger to taste the brew. The matter-of-fact Confucius found it sour, the Budda called it bitter, and Laotse pronounced it sweet.

 しかし、道教がアジア的生活に大きく寄与しているのは審美主義の世界においてである.中国の歴史家は道教を「世界の処世術」だと常に言う.というのは、道教は現在を、我々のことを扱うからである.天が自然と出会い、昨日が明日から分かれるのは私達のなかにおいてである.現在は動き続ける「無限」であり、相対の本領である.「相対性」は「適応」を求める.「適応」は「芸術」である.処世術は我々の周りを常に再適応する.道教徒は世俗をそれそのものとして受け入れ、儒教徒や仏教徒と違って、悲哀と苦悩の世界に美を見出そうとする.宗朝の「三人の酢を味わうもの」という寓話は三つの教義の傾向を実によく説明する.釈迦牟尼、孔子、そして老子はあるとき酢の入った瓶の前に立ち、人生の象徴である酢を指につけて醸造を味わう.その事実を孔子は酸いといい、仏陀は苦さといい、老子は甘みだと述べた.

The Taoists claimed that the comedy of life could be made more interesting if everyone would preserve the unities. To keep the proportion of things and give place to others without losing one’s own position was the secret of success in the mundane drama. We must know the whole play in order to properly act our parts; the conception of totality must never be lost in that of the individual. This Laotse illustrates by his favourite metaphor of the Vacuum. He claimed that only in vacuum lay the truly essential. The reality of a room, for instance, was to be found in the vacant space enclosed by roof and walls, not in the roof and walls themselves. The usefulness of a water pitcher or the material of which it was made. Vacuum is all potent because all containing. In vacuum alone motion becomes possible. One who could make of himself a vacuum into which others might freely enter would become master of all situations. The whole can always dominate the part.

 道教徒は皆がより三単一の法則を享受すれば人生の喜劇はより面白くなるだろうと述べた.物事の釣り合いを保ち、自分の立場を失うことなく場所を他に譲ることが日常劇における成功の秘訣であった.私達は自分の役割をきちんと演じるために全体の芝居をしらなければならない.全体の概念は個を知っても失われてはならない.

 老子は「虚」という好みの暗喩を用いて説明する.彼は唯一虚においてのみ本質があると説いた.例えば、部屋の本質は、屋根と壁によって閉じられた空間に見いだされ、屋根と壁そのものではないとした.水差しの利便性は水を容れるそのものにあるとした.虚はすべてを含むゆえに万能である.虚においてのみ動作は可能である.自分を空虚にして他者が入ってこれるようにできるものはあらゆる状況をも自由にするである.全体が常に部分を支配するのだ.

These Taoists’ ideas have greatly influenced all our theories of action, even to those of fencing and wrestling. Jiu-jitsu, the Japanese art of self-defence, owes its name to a passage in the Taoteiking. In jiu-jitsu one seeks to draw out and exhaust the enemy’s strength by non-resistance, vacuum, while conserving one’s own strength for victory in the final struggle. In art the importance of the same principle is illustrated by the value of suggestion. In leaving something unsaid the beholder is given a chance to complete the idea and thus a great masterpiece irresistibly rivets your attention until you seem to become actually a part of it. A vacuum is there for you to enter and fill up to the full measure of your aesthetic emotion.

 こうした道教徒の思想は我々の行動理論に大きな影響をもたらし、剣術と相撲にさえも影響を与えた.柔術は日本の護衛術であるが、「道徳経」の一句からその名を得ている.柔術において人は無抵抗、すなわち虚によって敵の力を引き出そうとし、疲労させ、最後の闘いのために力を温存するのである.芸術において同様の原則が重要であることは暗示の価値が説明している.何も言わずにおくことで観察者はその考えをまとめる機会を与えられる.そうして偉大な傑作が否応なしに人を釘付けにし、見るものが実際に作品の一部になっている気持ちにするのだ.虚無は見るものを招き審美的感情を十分に満たすためにある.

He who had made himself master of the art of living was the Real Man of the Taoist. At birth he enters the realm of dreams only to awaken to reality at death. He tempers his own brightness in order to merge himself into the obscurity of others. He is “reluctant, as one who crosses a stream in winter; hesitating as one who fears the neighbourhood; respectful, like a guest; trembling, like ice that is about to melt; unassuming, like a piece of wood not yet carved; vacant, like a valley; formless, like troubled waters.” To him the three jewels of life were Pity, Economy, and Modesty.

 生の術を極めたものは道教でいう「本物の人」であった.生まれると彼は夢の国に入り、彼は死に際でのみ現実に目覚める.他者の蒙昧さを自身が混在させるために、自分のまばゆさを和らげる.

 彼は「冬の小川を横切る人のように渋り、隣人をおそれる人のようにためらう.客人のように丁寧で、溶けようとする氷のように震えている.彫られていない材木のように控えめであり、渓谷のように空虚であり、荒れる海のように形がない」.

 彼にとって三つの宝石とは慈愛、倹約、そして謙譲であった.

If now we turn our attention to Zennism we shall find that it emphasises the teachings of Taoism. Zen is a name derived from Sanscrit word Dhyanma, which signifies meditation. It claims that through consecrated meditation may be attained supreme self-realisation. Meditation is one of the six ways through which Buddhahood may be reached, and the Zen sectarians affirm that Sakyamuni laid special stress on this method in his later teachings, handing down the rules to his chief disciple Kashiapa. According to their tradition Kashiapa, the first Zen patriarch, imparted the secret to Ananda, who in turn passed it on to successive patriarchs until it reached Bodhi-Dharma came to Northern China in the early half of the sixth century and was the first patriarch of Chinese Zen. There is much uncertainty about the history of these patriarchs and their doctrines. In its philosophical aspect early Zennism seems to have affinity on one hand to the Indian Negativism of Nagarjuna and on the other to the Gnan philosophy formulated by Sancharacharya. The first teaching of Zen as we know it at the present day must be attributed to the sixth Chinese patriarch Yeno(637-713), founder of Southern Zen, so-called from the fact of its predominance in Southern China. He is closely followed by the great Baso(died 788) who made of Zen a living influence in Celestial life. Hiakujo(719-814) the pupil of Baso, first instituted the Zen monastery and established a ritual and regulations for its government. In the discussions of the Zen school after the time of Baso we find the play of the Yangtse-Kiang mind causing an accession of native modes of thought in contrast to the former Indian idealism. Whatever sectarian pride may assert to the contrary one cannot help being impressed by the similarity of Southern Zen to the teachings of Laotse and Taoist Conversationalists. In the Taoteiking we already find allusions to the importance of self-concentration and the need of properly regulating the breath- essential points in the practice of Zen meditation. Some of the best commentaries on the Book of Laotse have been written by Zen scholars. 

 我々が今、禅道に注意を向けると、禅は道教の教えを強調しているとわかる.禅はサンスクリットの言葉であるディヤーナから取られており、瞑想を意味する.神聖な瞑想を通じて最高の自己実現へ到ると主張する.瞑想とは仏に到達する六つの道の一つであり、禅の宗派がいうところによると、釈迦牟尼が晩年の教えでこの理論に特別な重きをおき、彼の主な弟子のカシュヤパ(迦葉)にその規則を伝えた.

 彼らの言い伝えによれば、カシュヤパは禅道の始祖であり、アーナンダ(阿難陀)は、十六世紀の前半に北部中国に菩提達磨が中国の禅道の第一始祖となるに到るまで順に後継者たちに秘技を授けたのだった.この始祖らの歴史と教義については不確かなことが多い.その早期禅道の理念的な面はナーガルジュナ(龍樹)のインド否定論に親和性があり、他方シャンカラチャリヤにより作られた唯識哲学に似ているようである.禅の最初の教えは我々が今日知るように、六代目の祖師慧能(六三七-七一三年)だと考えられ、南方の禅の創始者、中国南部のその優勢を占めていたためにそう言われる.

 中国人の生活に禅の影響を与えているとした偉大な馬祖は(七八八年没)慧能のすぐ後を継いだ.百丈(七一九-八一四年)は馬祖の徒弟であり、統制のため禅の叢林を最初に創設し儀式と規則(禅林清規)を定めた.馬祖のあとの時代に禅の問答で我々は揚子江の理念が当時のインド理想主義と対照をなす中国固有の様式を付け加えていると知る.

 流派の自尊心が、反対しようと、老子や道教徒の保守派の教えへと南方の禅の類似性を考えられずにはいられないとわかる.

 「道徳経」で我々はすでに自己集中の重要性への引喩と、禅の瞑想の実践するための要点、適切な呼吸の調整が必要だと知る.「老子」の最も優れた注釈は禅の学者によって書かれている.

Zennism, like Taoism, is the worship of Relativity. One master defines Zen as the art of feeling the polar star in the southern sky. Truth can be reached only through the comprehension of opposites. Again, Zennism, like Taoism, is a strong advocate of individualism. Nothing is real except that which concerns the  working of our own minds. Yeno, th sixth patriarch, once saw two monks watching the flag of a pagoda fluttering in the wind. One said “It is the wind that moves,” the other said “It is the flag that moves”; but Yeno explained to them that the real movement was neither of the wind nor the flag, but of something within their own minds. Hiakujo was walking in the forest with a disciple when a hare scurried off at their approach. “Why does the hare fly from you?” asked Hiakujo. “Because he is afraid of me,” was the answer. “No,” said the master, “it is because you have a murderous instinct.” This dialogue recalls that of Soshi(Chuangtse), the Taoist. One day Soshi was walking on the bank of a river with a friend. “How delightfully the fishes are enjoying themselves in the water!” exclaimed Soshi. His friend spoke to him thus: “You are not a fish; how do you know that the fishes are enjoying themselves?” “you are not myself,” returned Soshi; “how do you know that the fishes are enjoying themselves?” “You are not myself,” returned Soshi; “how do you know that I do not know that the fishes are enjoying themselves?”

 禅道は道教のように「相対性」を崇拝する.ある師は禅を南方の空に北極星を感じる術と定義した.真実は対極の理解を通じてのみなされる.さらに禅道は道教のように、個人主義の強い擁護者である.自分の思弁を除いて実在するものは何もないのだ.

 慧能、六代目始祖はあるとき、二人の僧が楼閣の旗が風になびくのを見た.一人が「あれが揺れるのは風のせいだ」というと、もう一人は、「動いているのは旗だ」といった.しかし慧能は、実際に動いているのは風でもなく、旗でもない.自分の精神の中で何かが動いているのだ、と彼らに説いた.

  百丈は弟子と森の中を歩いていると、近くにいた兎が逃げ出した.「なぜ兎はあなたから逃げたのでしょう」と百丈が尋ねると、「なぜなら兎は私を恐れたからです」と答えた.「そうではない、あなたの殺気を感じたからだ」と師は答えた.この対話は道教徒の莊子のものを想起させる.

 莊子が友人と川のほとりを歩いていると「魚はなんと楽しそうに泳いでいることか」と莊子はいった.彼の友人は次のようにいう.「あなたは魚ではないのにどうして魚が楽しんでいるとわかるのかね」、「あなたは私ではない」と莊子は返す.「なぜあなたは私が魚が楽しんでいるのがわからないといえるのかね」と.

Zen was often opposed to the precepts of orthodox Buddhism even as Taoism was opposed to Confucianism. To the transcendental insight of the Zen, words were but an incumbrance to thought; the whole sway of Buddhist scriptures only commentaries on personal speculation. The followers of Zen aimed at direct communion with the inner nature of things, regarding their outward accessories only as impediments to a clear perception of the Truth. It was this love of the Abstract that led the Zen to prefer black and white sketches to the elaborately coloured paintings of the classic Buddhist School. Some of the Zen even became iconoclastic as a result of their endeavour to recognise the Buddha in themselves rather than through images and symbolism. We find Tankawosho breaking up wooden statue of Buddha on a wintry day to make a fire. “What sacrilege!” said the horror-stricken bystander. “I wish to get the Shali out of the ashes,” calmly rejoined the Zen. “But you certainly will not get Shali from this image!” was the angry retort, to which Tanka replied, “If I do not, this is certainly not a Buddha and I am committing no sacrilege.” Then he turned to warm himself over the kindling fire.

 禅道はしばしば正統な仏教の考えと対立した.道教ですら儒教と対立した.禅道の超越的内観にとって言葉は思考の邪魔でしか無い.(incumbrance->encumbrance)

 仏教徒の経典の全体の力は個人の推測による注釈に過ぎない.禅道の信徒は物事の内なる本質との直接的な交わりを目的とし、外部の付属物は真実の明瞭な知覚の妨げでしかないとみなした.抽象への愛こそが禅をして古典的な仏門の塗装よりも墨絵の素描を好ませたのである.心象と象徴よりも自身に仏を感じようとしたの結果として、ある禅道のものは偶像破壊者となった.

 丹霞和尚はある冬の日に火を起こすため木造の仏を壊したという.恐れおののく目撃者は「何という冒涜か」と言ったが、和尚は「私は灰の中から舎利を得るのだ」といい静かに座禅に戻った.「ですがこの像から舎利は手に入らないではないですか」と怒りの返事がかえってくると、丹霞は「もし手に入らなければ、これは仏ではないし私は冒涜をしていないのだよ」そして彼はつけた火で暖を取るためくるりと戻った.

A special contribution of Zen to Eastern thought was its recognition of the mundane as of equal importance with the spiritual. It held that in the great relation of things there was no distinction of small and great, an atom possessing equal possibilities with the universe. The seeker for perfection must discover in his own life the reflection of the inner light. The organisation of the Zen monastery was very significant of this point of view. To every member, except the abbot, was assigned some special work in the care-taking of the monastery, and curiously enough, to the novices were committed lighter duties, while to the most respected and advanced monks were given the more irksome and menial tasks. Such services formed a part of the Zen discipline and every least action must be done absolutely perfectly. Thus many a weighty discussion ensued while weeding the garden, paring a turnip, or serving tea. The whole ideal of Teaism is a result of this Zen conception of greatness in the smallest incidents of life. Taoism furnished the basis for aesthetic ideals, Zennism made the, practical.

 禅道が東洋にもたらした特別な貢献は、世俗を精神的なものと同じく重要であるとみなしたことであった.事物の大いなる関係において、大小の区別はなくて、一つの原子がもつ可能性は宇宙と等しいのである.

 完全を求めるものは自分の人生に内なる光の反映を探さなければならない.禅林の組織はこの観点で大変意義深い.あらゆる信徒は、長を除いて禅林の管理をする何らかの役が与えられている.面白いことに新入りは簡単な仕事を、一方最も尊敬され熟達した僧侶はより退屈な単純作業を与えられたのだった.そうした奉仕は禅道の規則の一部分でありどんなにわずかな行為でも必ず完全に行わなければならなかった.そうして多くの実りある問答が庭の手入れや蕪をわけること、茶を淹れる間行われた.茶道の理想の全体はこの禅の、偉大なものは日々の小さな出来事にあるという思想の帰結であり、道教は審美的理想の基礎を与え、禅道はその理想を実践したのである.

 実は、三章の終盤の和訳がすっぽぬけていたのでした.大変失礼しました.かなり大事な箇所でもありました.それにしても見事だなぁ.

To the transcendental insight of the Zen, words were but an incumbrance to thought.という文句、しびれますね.長い間、’insight’の訳に「洞察」としていたのでしたが、「内観」という言葉が割としっくりくる今日このごろです.

 次回、茶の本は第四章の続きです.どうぞよろしくおねがいします.