The Book of Tea: 18

(What’s the Story) Morning Glory

The birth of the Art of the Flower Arrangement seems to be simultaneous with that of Teaism in the fifteenth century. Our legends ascribe the flower arrangement to those early Buddhist saints who gathered the flowers strewn by the storm and, in their infinite solicitude for all livings things, placed them in vessels of water. It is said that Soami, the great painter and connoisseur of the court of Ashikaga-Yoshimasa, was one of the earliest adepts at it. Juko, the tea-master, was one of his pupils, as was also Senno, the founder of the house of Ikenobo, a family as illustrious in the annals of flowers as was that of the Kanosin painting. With the perfecting of the tea-ritual under Rikiu, in the latter part of the sixteenth century, flower arrangement also attains its full growth. Rikiu and his successors, the celebrated Oda-waraku, Furuta-Oribe, Koyetsu, Kobori-Enshiu, Katagiri-Sekishiu, vied with each other in forming new combinations. We must remember, however, that the flower worship of the tea-masters formed only a part of their aesthetic ritual, and was not a distinct religion by itself. A flower arrangement, like the other works of art in the tea-room, was subordinated to the total scheme of decoration. Thus, Sekishiu ordained that white plum blossoms should not be made use of when snow lay in the garden. “Noisy” flowers were relentlessly banished from the tea-room. A flower arrangement by a tea-master loses its significance if removed from the place for which it was originally intended, for its lines and proportions have been specially worked out with a view to its surroundings. 

 生花の芸術の誕生は十五世紀の茶道と同時のように思われる.我々の伝説は、生花を嵐によって撒き散らされた花に集った初期の仏教徒の聖人に帰するとして、万物の生けるものへの無限の配慮において、水の器にそれを活けたのであった.偉大な画家であり、足利義政の宮廷の鑑定家であった相阿弥は、初期の生花の達人であった.茶の宗匠であった珠光は、彼の門弟の一人で、狩野の絵画のように生花の年代記が輝かしい池坊の創始である専応も門弟であった.

 千利休のもと茶の儀礼の完成にともなって、十六世紀の後期に、生花は完全な成長を成し遂げた.利休とその後継者、有名な織田有楽、古田織部、光悦、小堀遠州、片桐石州が新たな組み合わせを作ろうと切削した.

 しかしながら、私達が覚えておかないとならないのは、茶の宗匠の花の礼賛は彼らの審美的儀礼の一部をつくったに過ぎないことであり、そのものによる明らかな宗教ではなかったということである.生花は、茶室での芸術の他の作品のように、装飾の全体の図式に従属したのである.

 こうして石州は庭に雪が積もったときに寒梅を使うべきでないと決めた.「騒がしい」花は茶室から容赦なく追放された.茶の宗匠による生花は本来そうあるべき場所から除かれればその意義を失うのである.というのは、その線と釣り合いが特に周囲と景観に作用していたからであった.

The adoration of the flower for its own sake begins with the rise of “Flower-Masters,” toward the middle of the seventeenth century. It now becomes independent of the tea-room and knows no laws save that that the vase imposes on it. New conceptions and methods of execution now become possible, and many were the principles and schools resulting therefrom. A writer in the middle of the last century said he could count over one hundred different schools of flower arrangement. Broadly speaking, these divide themselves into two main branches, the Formalistic and the Naturalesque. The Formalistic schools, led by the Ikenobo, aimed at a classic idealism corresponding to that of the Kano-academicians. We possess records of arrangements by the early masters of this school which almost reproduce the flower paintings of Sansetsu and Tsunenobu. The Naturalesque school, on the other hand, as its name implies, accepted nature as its model, only imposing such modifications of form as conduced to the expression of artistic unity. Thus we recognise in its works the same impulses which formed the Ukiyoe and Shijo schools of painting.

 花自身のための称揚が「生花の宗匠」の興隆とともに始まったのは、十七世紀の中期にかけてであった.今や茶室から独立し、花瓶に課す法則を覗いて何もないことを知っている.

 新たな構想と方法の実践が今や可能となり、多くは原理とそれを生み出す流派であった.十九世紀の中期におけるある文人は生花には百以上の流派が計上できるといった.大まかに言えば、これらは様式派と自然主義派の二つの主流に分けられる.池坊の流れを組む様式派は、狩野派のそれに付随する古典的理想主義を目指した.山雪と常信の花の絵とほとんど再現したにひとしい、この流派の早期の宗匠たちによる記録がある.一方で、自然主義派はその名前が示す通り、自然をその模範として受容し、芸術的統合の表現に貢献するような形の修正を行うに過ぎなかった.

 このようにして我々はその作品において浮世絵と四条派の絵画を形作った同一の衝動を認めることができる.

It would be interesting, had we time, to enter more fully than is now possible into the laws of composition and detail formulated by the various flower-masters of this period, showing, as they would, the fundamental theories which governed Tokugawa decoration. We find them referring to the Leading Principle(Heaven), the Subordinate Principle(Earth), the Reconciling Principle(Man), and any flower arrangement which did not embody these principles was considered barren and dead. They also dwelt much on the importance of treating a flower in its three different aspects, the Formal, the Semi-Formal, and the Informal. The first might be said to represent flowers in the stately costume of the ballroom, the second in the easy elegance of afternoon dress, the third in the charming deshabille of the boudoir.

 時間があり、その時期の多様な花の宗匠による様式だった構成と細部の法則を、より十分に今や堪能することができればさぞかし興味深いであろう.そうすれば徳川期の装飾を治めた基礎的理論があきらかになろう.彼らは指導的原則「天」、従属的原則「地」、調和的原則「人」について述べ、それらの原則に具体的に表現できない生花は不毛で死んだものと考えられた.これら三つの観点、すなわち「正式」、「半正式」、「略式」(真、行、草)があり、花の扱い方の重要性を説明している.最初のものは舞踏室の正装に合うような花を、二番目は簡素で華やかなアフタヌーンドレスを着る時の花を、三番目は寝室の可愛らしい普段着を着る時の花だといえよう.

Our personal sympathies are with the flower-arrangements of the tea-master rather than with those of the flower-master. The former is art in its proper setting and appeals to us on account of its true intimacy with life. We should like to call this school the Natural in contradiction to the Naturalesque and Formalistic schools. The tea-master deems his duty ended with the selection of the flowers, and leaves them to tell their own story. Entering a tea-room in late winter, you may see a slender spray of wild cherries in combination with a budding camellia; prophecy of spiring. Again, if you go into a noon-tea on some irritatingly hot summer day, you may discover in the darkened coolness of the tokonoma a single lily in a hanging vase; dripping with dew, it seems to smile at the foolishness of life.

 個人的には花の宗匠よりもむしろ茶の宗匠が活けた花に共感する.それはその生命との親密さに基づいて我々を魅了し独特な配置を行う芸術である.我々はこの流派を「自然主義派」および「様式派」と区別して「自然派」と呼びたい.茶の宗匠らは自分の義務は花の選定で終わると考え、葉に自分の物語を言って聞かせるようにしたのである.

 晩冬に茶室に入ると、蕾のある椿、それは春の予言であり、ともに野桜の華奢な配置をみる.もう一つ、暑い夏の日、いらいらしながら正午の茶に赴くと、床の間の暗い涼しさの中に掛け花瓶に一輪の百合があり、露に濡れているのを見る.花は人生の愚かさに笑いかけているように見える.

A solo of flowers is interesting, but in a concerto with painting and sculpture the combination becomes entrancing. Sekishiu once placed some waterplants in a flat receptacle to suggest the vegetation of lakes and marshes, and on the wall above he hung a painting by Soami of wild duck flying in the air. Shoha, another tea-master, combined a poem on the Beauty of Solitude by the Sea with a bronze incense burner in the form a fisherman’s hut and some wild flowers of the beach. One of the guests has recorded that he felt in the whole composition the breath of waning autumn.

 花の独奏も興味深いが、絵画や彫刻との共演もうっとりするものだ.石州はかつてある水草を平らな盆におき、湖と干潟を暗示させ、壁には相阿弥による鴨が飛んでいる絵を掛けたのであった.もう一人の茶の宗匠である、紹巴というものは、浜の野草と漁夫の小屋を模した青銅の香炉を焚いて海辺の孤独の美の詩を添えた.ある客人は全体の構成に去りゆく秋を感じたと記録に残している.

Flower stories are endless. We shall recount but one more. In the sixteenth century the morning-glory was as yet a rare plant with us. Rikiu had an entire garden planted with it, which he cultivated with assiduous care. The fame of his convolvuli reached the ear of the Taiko, and he expressed a desire to see them, in consequence of which Rikiu invited him to a morning tea at his house. On the appointed day Taiko walked through the garden, but nowhere could he see any vestige of the convolvulus. The ground had been leveled and strewn with fine pebbles and sand. With sullen anger the despot entered the tea-room, but a sight waited him there which completely restored his humour. On the tokonoma, in a rare bronze of Sung workmanship, lay a single morning-glory—the queen of the whole garden!

 花の物語はきりがない.もう一つだけで終わりにしよう.十六世紀には朝顔は日本人にとって希少な植物であった.利休は一面に朝顔を植え、根気強く育てた.彼の朝顔の名声が太閤の耳に届くと、太閤は朝顔を見たいと思った.その結果、利休は彼を自宅で朝の茶に招いた.約束の日に太閤は庭を通ったが、朝顔はどこにもなかった.地面は平らになり細かい丸石が敷かれていた.怒りの君主は茶室に入ると、彼を待つ光景は彼をすっかり喜ばせた.床の間には、宗の希少な青銅の作品の中に一輪の朝顔があったのである.庭全体の女王とでもいうべきものであった.

In such instances we see the full significance of the Flower Sacrifice. Perhaps the flowers appreciate the full significance of it. They are not cowards, like men. Some flowers glory in death —certainly the Japanese cherry blossoms do, as they freely surrender themselves to the winds. Anyone who has stood before the fragrant avalanche at Yoshino or Arashiyama must have realised this. For a moment they hover like bejewelled clouds and dance above the crystal streams; then, as they sail away on the laughing waters, they seem to say: “Farewell, O Spring! We are on to Eternity.”

 このような例から、我々は花の犠牲というものを十分に理解できる.おそらく花はそのことを十分に理解しているのだろう.彼らは人間のように、腰抜けではない.ある花は死によって栄光を得る.日本の桜はそうであり、気ままに風に身を任せるのである.吉野や嵐山の桜吹雪の前に立つものは誰もがこのことを理解するにちがいないであろう.一瞬で花は宝石を散りばめた雲のように漂い、水晶の流れの上を踊る.そして、笑う水を流れていくのである.彼らはこう言っているように思える.

「春よ、さらば.我らは永遠に旅立つ」

 ここまで読んでくださり、どうもありがとうございました.

The Book of Tea: 6

Chapter II 第二章

 こんにちは.第二章の続きです.ここで一度岡倉天心の和訳は中断して、また他の記事を書いていくつもりです.大体このような5−6段落の英文は、3-4時間くらいで和訳するのですが、この速度はどのくらいの水準なのでしょうね.この本、本当にお茶の勉強になりますよ!

Photo by Nick Bondarev on Pexels.com

The tea-ideal of the Sungs differed from the Tangs even as their notion of life differed. They sought to actualise what their predecessors tried to symbolise. To the Neo-Confucian mind the cosmic law was not reflected in the phenomenal world, but the phenomenal world was the cosmic law itself. AEons were but moments –Nirvana always within grasp. The Taoist conception that immortality lay in the eternal change permeated all their modes of thought. It was the process, not the dead, which was interesting. It was the completing, not the completion, which was really vital. Man came thus at once face to face with nature. A new meaning grew into the art of life. The tea began to be not a potential pastime, but one of the methods of self-realisation. Wangyucheng eulogised tea as “flooding his soul like a direct appeal, that its delicate bitterness reminded him of the after-taste of a good counsel.” Sotumpa wrote of the strength of the immaculate purity in tea which defied corruption as a truly virtuous man. Among the Buddhists, the southern Zen sect, which incorporated so much of Taoist doctrines, formulated an elaborate ritual of tea. The monks gathered before the image of Bodhi Dharma and drank tea out of a single bowl with the profound formality of a holy sacrament. It was this Zen ritual which finally developed into the Tea-ceremony of Japan in the fifteenth century.

 宋の茶の理想は唐のそれと異なるように、彼らの人生観と相応死している.宋の人々は自分らの先祖が象徴化しようと試みたものを具現化しようとした.新儒教徒の精神にとって、宇宙の法則は現象世界において反映しているのでなく、現象世界が宇宙の法則そのものなのであった.永劫とは一瞬であり涅槃は常に掌中にあった.不死性が永遠の変化の中に存在するという道教徒の概念は宋人全員の思考様式に浸透した.興味深いのは過程であり、死ではない.真に重要なものであるのは、完成させることであって完成ではない.このようにして即座に人は自然と向き合ってきた.新しい意味が萌えて生の芸術へ育まれていった.茶は詩的な気晴らしではなく、自己実現の手段の一つとなっていった.王禹偁は茶を「直な魅力のように魂を満たし、その繊細な苦さは良い助言の後味を思い起こさせる」と賛辞した.蘇東坡(蘇軾)は、真に徳のある人物として腐敗を拒む茶の清浄無垢の力だと記した.仏教徒の間で、南方の禅の宗派は、道教の教義をかなり取り入れていて、凝った茶の儀式を定めた.僧侶たちは菩提達磨の像の前に集い、深淵な聖餐の儀礼的行為とともに一杯の茶を飲んだ.十五世紀の日本の茶の湯を最終的に発展させたのは禅宗の儀礼であったのだ.

Unfortunately the sudden outburst of the Mongol tribes in the thirteenth century which resulted in the devastation and conquest of China under the barbaric rule of the Yuen Emperors, destroyed all the fruits of Sung culture. The native dynasty of the Mings which attempted re-nationalisation in the middle of the fifteenth century was harassed by internal troubles, and China again fell under the alien rule of the Manchus in the seventeenth century. Manners and customs changed to leave no vestige of the former times. The powdered tea is entirely forgotten. We find a Ming commentator at loss to recall the shape of the whisk mentioned in one of the Sung classics. Tea is now taken by sleeping the leaves in hot water in a bowl or cup. The reason why the Western world is innocent of the older method of drinking tea is explained by the fact that Europe knew it only at the close of the Ming dynasty.

 不幸なことに、十三世紀の蒙古族の突発的襲来によって、中国が侵略され荒廃し、元朝の野蛮な支配下で、宋文化のあらゆる成果を破壊された.十五世紀中葉で国家再興を企てた土着の明王朝は、内憂によって困窮し、中国は十七世紀の満州族の異人統治に再び甘んじた.風俗慣習は変わり先代の形跡を微塵も残さなかった.抹茶は完全に忘れ去られた.明時代の評論家は、宋時代の古典の一つに言及された茶筅の形を呼び覚ますことに途方に暮れている.茶は湯の入った茶碗に茶葉を淹れることで飲む.西洋世界が茶飲みの旧法に無頓着な理由はヨーロッパが明王朝の末期に初めて茶を知ったという事実によって説明される.

To the latter-day Chinese tea is a delicious beverage, but not an ideal. The long woes of his country have robbed him of the zest for the meaning of life. He has become modern, that is to say, old and disenchanted. he has lost that sublime faith in illusions which constitutes the eternal youth and vigour of the poets and ancients. He is an eclectic and politely accepts the traditions of the universe. He toys with Nature, but does not condescend to conquer or worship her. His Leaf-tea is often wonderful with its flower-like aroma, but the romance of the Tang and Sung ceremonials are not to be found in his cup.

 後世の中国人にとって茶は美味な飲料であったが理想的ではなかった.国の長い悲しみは人生の意味に対する喜びを奪い去った.人々は現代人となった、すなわち、老いて魅力を失った.詩人であった古代人の生気と永遠の若さを構成する幻想に対する崇高な信頼を失ってしまった.人は折衷的であり宇宙の伝統を丁重に受容する.彼は自然と戯れるが、崇めもせず支配しようと恩着せがましいこともしない.茶葉はしばし花の香のように素晴らしいが、唐と宋の茶の湯のロマンスは碗の中に見いだされない.

Japan, which followed closely on the footsteps of Chinese civilisation, has known the tea in all its three stages. As early as the year 729 we read of the Emperor Shomu giving tea to one hundred monks at his palace in Nara. The leaves were probably imported by our ambassadors to the Tang Court and prepared in the way then in fashion. In 801 the monk Saicho brought back some seeds and planted them in Yeisan. Many tea-gardens are heard of in the succeeding centuries, as well as the delight of the aristocracy and priesthood in the beverage. The Sung tea reached us in 1191 with the return of Yeisaizenji, who went there to study the southern Zen school. The new seeds which he carried home were successfully planted in three places, one of which, the Uji district near Kioto, bears still the name of producing the best tea in the world. The southern Zen spread with rapidity, and with it the tea-ritual and the tea-ideal of the Sung. By the fifteenth century, under the patronage of the Shogun, Ashikaga –Yoshimasa, the tea ceremony is fully constituted and made into an independent and secular performance. Since then Teaism is fully established in Japan. The use of the steeped tea of the later China is comparatively recent among us, being only known since the middle of the seventeenth century. It has replaced the powdered tea in ordinary consumption, though the latter still constitutes to hold its place as the teas.

 日本は、中国文明の後をぴったりつけており、その三つの時代全てを知っている.早くも729年に我々は聖武天皇が奈良の宮廷で百人もの僧侶に茶を授けたという記載を見る.茶葉はおそらく遣唐使から持ち込まれ、当時の作法でもてなされたのだろう.801年に僧侶である最澄は茶の種を持ち帰り叡山に植えた.その後数世紀にわたって多くの茶園が拓かれ、茶は貴族と僧侶の愛飲するところとなった.宋の茶は1191年、栄西禅師(明菴栄西)の帰国とともに我々のもとへ渡った.彼が故郷に持ち帰った新しい種子は三箇所に首尾よく植えられ、うち一箇所は京都近郊の宇治であり、世界で最高の茶を生産する名を保っている.南方の禅宗は急速に広まり、それとともに宋での儀式と理想も広まった.十五世紀には将軍足利義政の庇護下で、茶会はすっかり完成し、独立した世俗の催しとなった.以来、茶道は日本で完全に確立された.その後中国の煎茶の使用は、我々の間で比較的新しいものであり、十七世紀の中葉以来初めて知られている.抹茶が茶としての地位を保つことが後もできたにも関わらず、常用の消費には煎茶が抹茶に取って代わっている.

It is in the Japanese tea ceremony that we see the culmination of tea-ideals. Our successful resistance of the Mongol invasion in 1281 had enabled us to carry on the Sung movement so disastrously cut off in China itself through the nomadic inroad. Tea with us became more than an idealisation of the form of drinking; it is a religion of the art of life. The beverage grew to be an excuse for the worship of purity and refinement, a sacred function at which the host and guest joined to produce for that occasion the utmost beatitude of the mundane. The tea-room was an oasis in the dreary waste of existence where weary travellers could meet to drink from the common spring of art-appreciation. The ceremony was an improvised drama whose plot was about the tea, the flowers, and the painting. Not a colour to disturb the tone of the room, not a sound to mar the rhythm of things, not a gesture to obtrude on the harmony, not a word to break the unity of the surroundings, all movements to be performed simply and naturally –such were the aims of the tea ceremony. And strangely enough it was often successful. A subtle philosophy lay behind it all. Teaism was Taoism in disguise.

 茶の理想に到達するのを我々が目の当たりにするのは日本茶においてである.1281年の蒙古襲来をうまく退けたために、我々は、異民族侵入で惨めにも断たれた宋の運動を継続することができたのであった.我々と茶の関係は飲用の形式の理想以上となった.茶は洗練と純真の礼賛に対する口実となり、主人と客が一緒に、俗世の至上の祝福の機会を生みだす神聖な役となった.茶室は疲労した旅行者が集って、芸術鑑賞という共通の泉から喉を潤すため、存在の寂しい荒地のオアシスであった.茶の湯は茶、花々そして絵画についての即興劇であった.部屋の調子を乱す色はなく、事物の旋律を損ねる音はなく、調和を破る動作はなく、周囲の統一感を壊す言葉もなく、あらゆる動作は素朴で自然になされるのである.そういったことが茶会の趣旨であった.そして奇しくも茶会はたいてい上手くいくのだった.かすかな理念はすべてその背後にあった.茶道は道教の姿を変えたものであった.

いつもここまで読んでくださってありがとうございます.亀吾郎法律事務所をよろしくお願いいたします.