The Book of Tea: 19

Chapter VII

TEA-MASTERS

IN religion the Future is behind us. In art the Present is the eternal. The tea-masters held that real appreciation of art is only possible to those who make of it a living influence. Thus they sought to regulate their daily life by the highest standard of refinement which obtained in the tea-room. In all circumstances serenity of mind should be maintained, and conversation should be so conducted as never to mar the harmony of the surroundings. The cut and colour of the dress, the poise of the body, and the manner of waking could all be made expressions of artistic personality. These were matters not to be lightly ignored, for until one has made himself beautiful he has no right to approach beauty. Thus the tea-master strove to be something more than  the artist, —art itself. It was the Zen of aestheticism. Perfection is everywhere if we only choose to recognise it. Rikiu loved to quote an old poem which says: “to those long only for flowers, fain would I show the full-blown spring which abides in the toiling buds of snow covered hills.”

 宗教において「未来」は我々の後ろにある.芸術において「現在」とは永劫である.芸術の真の理解は生ける感化を作り出すことができるものにのみ行われる.こうして彼らは茶室で得られる最上級の風雅により日常の生活の調整をはかるのである.あらゆる状況下で精神の静穏は保たれるべきであり、周囲の調和を決して乱さぬように会話は行われるべきである.整髪と正装の色、体の姿勢、歩容は芸術的人格の表現でなされる.これらのことは軽んじられるべきではない.というのは、自身が美しくあろうとしない限り美に近づく権利はないからである.こうして茶の宗匠は芸術家よりも、芸術そのものよりも、それ以上のものになろうとするのである.それは審美主義の禅であった.完全性を認識しようとすることだけで、それはどこにでもあるのだ.利休は古い詩を引用することを好んだ.それは次のようなものである.

「花を待ち望むものに、なんとか地中から出そうとあがく、雪に覆われた芽にひそむ満開の姿を見せたいものだ」

花をのみ 待つらん人に 山里の 雪間の草の 春を見せばや

Manifold indeed have been the contributions of the tea-masters to art. They completely revolutionised the classical architecture and interior decorations, and established the new style which we have described in the chapter of the tea-room, a style to whose influence even the palaces and monasteries built after the sixteenth century have all been subject. The many-sided Kobori-Enshiu has left notable examples of his genius in the Imperial villa of Katsura, the castles of Nagoya and Nijo, and the monastery of Kohoan. All the celebrated gardens of Japan were laid out by the tea-masters. Our pottery would probably never have attained its high quality of excellence if the tea masters had not lent to it their inspiration, the manufacture of the utensils used in the tea-ceremony calling forth the utmost expenditure of ingenuity on the part of our ceramist. The Seven Kilns of Enshiu are well known to all students of Japanese pottery. Many of our textile fabrics bear the names of tea-masters who conceived their colour or design. It is impossible, indeed, to find any department of art in which the tea-masters have not left marks of their genius. In painting and lacquer it seems almost superfluous to mention the immense service they have rendered. One of the greatest schools of painting owes its origin to the tea-master Honnami-Koyetsu, famed also as a lacquer artist and potter. Beside his works, the splendid creation of his grandson, Koho, and of his grandnephews, Korin and Kenzan, almost fall into the shade. The whole Korin school, as it is generally designated, is an expression of Teasim. In the broad lines of this school we seem to find the vitality of nature herself. 

 なるほど茶の宗匠の芸術への貢献は多方面にわたっている.彼らは古典建築と内装装飾に完璧に革命をもたらし、茶室の章において述べた新しい様式を確立したのであり、十六世紀の後、寺院や宮殿さえをも感化した様式が皆主体となったのである.多彩な才能をもつ小堀遠州はその才能を桂離宮、名古屋城や二条城、そして孤篷庵の寺院において目覚ましい例を残した.日本の名高い庭園はすべて茶の宗匠によって設計されたものである.もし茶人がその霊感を貸すことがなかったならば、我が国の陶器は高品質の優越を獲得することはなかったであろう.茶会で用いられる道具の工芸は我が国の陶芸家の創意工夫の類まれな努力を要する.遠州の七窯は日本の陶芸を学ぶものにとって知られている.我が国の織物にはその色彩や意匠を考案した茶人の名を冠している.事実、茶人がその才覚を残さずにおかなかった分野を探すことはできない.絵画と彫刻において彼らが貢献した膨大な奉仕について言及するのはほとんど無駄であるように思われる.

 茶人である本阿弥光悦に起源を持つ絵画の偉大な流派の一つは、蒔絵、陶芸でも名を馳せている.彼の作品に加え、彼の孫である、光甫や甥の子供である光琳や乾山の素晴らしい創作は陰りを帯びてしまうほどである.光琳派、総じて名付けられるのは、茶道の表現と言われる.この流派の太い線において我々は自然そのものの生命力を見出す.

Great as has been the influence of the tea-masters in the field of art, it is as nothing compared to that which they have exerted on the conduct of life. Not only which they have exerted on the conduct of life. Not only in the usages of polite society, but also in the arrangement of all our domestic details, do we feel the presence of the tea-masters. Many of our delicate dishes, as well as our way of serving food, are their inventions. They have taught us to dress only in garments of sober colours. They have instructed us in the proper spirit in which to approach flowers. They have given emphasis to our natural love of simplicity, and shown us the beauty of humility. In fact, through their teachings tea has entered the life of the people.

  芸術の分野に茶人が及ぼした影響は大きいが、人生の執り成しに重きをおくことと比べるほどではない.彼らは人生の執り成しにのみ重きをおいたわけではない.上流社会の用法においてだけでなく、あらゆる我ら自国の家庭の整理においても、重きをおいており、我々は茶人の存在を感じるのである.我が国の繊細な料理の多くは、食材を提供する方法と同じように、彼らの発明である.彼らは地味な衣服を着るよう説いた.花に歩み寄るときの正しい心構えを教えてくれた.簡素さに対する自然な愛を強調し、人情の美しさを示した.事実、彼らの教えを通して茶は人々の生活に入っていったのだ.

Those of us who know not the secret of properly regulating our own existence on this tumultuous sea of foolish troubles which we call life are constantly in a state of misery while vainly trying to appear happy and contented. We stagger in the attempt to keep our moral equilibrium, and see forerunners of the tempest in every cloud that floats on the horizon. Yet there is joy and beauty in the roll of the billows as they sweep outward toward eternity. Why not enter into their spirit, or, like Liehtse, ride upon the hurricane itself?

 我々が人生と呼ぶ愚かな障碍という怒涛の海に浮かぶ自分の存在を正しく律する秘訣を知らぬものは、幸せかつ満足しているように甲斐なくあがく惨めな状態に絶えずある.我々は千鳥足で倫理的平衡を保とうとし、地平線に浮かぶ嵐の先駆けを見る.しかし喜びと美しさは永遠へ志向する外へ吹き抜けるように、うねりの中にある.その魂の中になぜ入ろうとしないのか、列氏のように旋風に乗ろうとしないのか.

He only who has lived with the beautiful can die beautifully. The last moments of the great tea-masters were as full of exquisite refinement as had been their lives. Seeking always to be in harmony with the great rhythm of the universe, they were ever prepared to enter the unknown. The “Last Tea of Rikiu” will stand forth forever as the acme of tragic grandeur.

 美しいものとともに生きてきたものが、美しく死ぬことができる.偉大な茶人の最後の瞬間はその人生と同じように非常に美しく高潔であった.宇宙の調べとともに調和の中において常に探求しているので、彼らは未知の領域に入る覚悟ができていた.「利休の最後の茶」は悲劇的終局の極致であり続けるだろう.

Long had been the friendship between Rikiu and the Taiko-Hideyoshi, and high the estimation in which the great warrior held the tea-master. But the friendship of a despot is ever a dangerous honour. It was an age rife with treachery, and men trusted not even their nearest kin. Rikiu was no servile courtier, and had often dared to differ in argument with his fierce patron. Taking advantage of the coldness which had for some time existed between the Taiko and Rikiu, the enemies of the latter accused him of being implicated in a conspiracy to poison the sespot. It was whispered to Hideyoshi that the fatal potion was to be administered to him with a cup of the green beverage prepared by the tea-master. With Hideyoshi suspicion was sufficient ground for instant execution, and there was no appeal from the will of the angry ruler. On privilege alone was granted to the condemned–the honour of dying by his hand.

 利休と太閤秀吉との友情は長かったので、偉大な武将がその茶人に抱く尊敬も厚かった.しかし君主との友情は危険な名誉でもあった.裏切りの流行した時代であったから、武将は最も近い血族でさえ信用しなかった.利休は盲従的廷臣ではなかったので、気性の荒い庇護者にも異を唱える勇気があった.太閤と利休の間に存在したいくらかの冷涼な関係につけこみ、利休の敵は専制君主に毒を盛ろうとする陰謀を企てていると非難した.茶人によって準備された緑の飲み物が入った碗に致命的な毒が入っているという噂が秀吉の耳に入った.疑念の秀吉は即時に処刑を命ずる十分な根拠であり、怒れる君主に従う以外方法はなかった.唯一の権利は自らの手で死ぬ名誉であった.

On the day destined for his self-immolation, Rikiu invited his chief disciples to a last tea-ceremony. Mournfully at the appointed time the guests met at the portico. As they look into the garden path trees seem to shudder, and in the rustling of their leaves are heard the whispers of homeless ghosts. Like solemn sentinels before the gates of Hades stand the grey stone lanterns. A wave of rare incense is wafted from the tea-room; it is the summons which bids the guests to enter. One by one they advance and take their places. In the tokonoma hangs a kakenoma, –a wonderful writing by an ancient monk dealing with the evanescence of all earthly things. The singing kettle, as it boils over the brazier, sounds like some cicada pouring forth this woes to departing summer. Soon the host enters the rooms. Each in turn is served with tea, and each in turn silently drains his cup, the host last of all. According to established etiquette, the chief guest now asks permission to examine the tea-equipage. Rikiu places the various articles before them, with the kakemono. After all have expressed admiration of their beauty, Rikiu presents one of them to each of the assembled company as a souvenir. The bowl alone he keeps. ‘Never again shall this cup, polluted by the lips of misfortune, be used by man.” He speaks, and breaks the vessel into fragments.

 自己を犠牲にすることに定められた日に、利休は主要な弟子を最後の茶会に招いた.嘆きに満ちて、約束の時間に客は待合に集まった.庭路に目をやると木々は震えているように見え、家を求めてさまよう幽霊のすすり泣きのように葉がざわめいた.冥府の前の厳しい歩哨のように石灯籠が立っている.希少な香の香りが茶室から漂う.それは客人が入室を許される招きである.一人ひとり、前に出て席につく.床の間にかかる掛けの間は、万物の儚さについて扱う古の僧侶によって書かれた見事な書があった.火鉢の上で湧いている茶釜の音は、夏の別れを悲しみ鳴く蝉の音に似ている.やがて主人が部屋に入る.各々茶がもてなされ、黙々と碗を飲み干し、主人が最後に飲む.しきたりに従い、主賓が茶具の閲覧を申し出る.掛け物とともに、利休は様々な品を彼らの前に置いた.最後に皆がそれらの美しさをたたえ、利休はその器を一つずつ、集うものに形見として手渡した.碗だけが彼のところに残った.

「不遇の唇によって汚れた、この小さな器を、決して使わせまい」

 彼はそう言い、粉々に砕いた.

The ceremony is over; the guest with difficulty restraining their tears, take their last farewell and leave the room. One one only, the nearest and dearest, is requested to remain and the end. Rikiu then removes his tea-gown and carefully folds it upon the mat, thereby disclosing the immaculate white death robe which it had hitherto concealed. Tenderly he gazes on the shining blade of the fatal dagger, and in exquisite verse thus addresses it:

 茶会は終わった.涙を堪えがたい客は最後の別れを述べ、部屋を後にした.ただ一人だけが、最も親近なものが最期を見届けるよう頼まれた.利休は茶会の衣服を脱ぎ、注意深く畳の上にたたむと、隠れていた真っ白な死装束が現れる.優しいまなざしで彼は輝く生殺の刃を見つめ、それに呼びかけ次のような見事な句を詠んだ.

“Welcome to thee,

O sword of eternity!

Through Buddha

And through Dharma alike

Thou hast cleft thy way.”

汝よ、来たれ、

永遠の剣よ

仏陀を

達磨をも

汝は切り裂き道を拓くのだ.

With a smile upon his face Rikiu passed forth into the unknown.

 微笑とともに利休は永遠の世界へと旅立った.

人生七十 力囲希咄 吾這宝剣 祖仏共殺提る我得具足の一太刀 今此時ぞ天に抛

千利休


これで茶の本は終わります.長い間ご愛読ありがとうございました.

もちろん、これまで通りブログは続いていきます.

投稿者: 吾郎

2019年12月11日に事務所創設.法律以外の様々な問題を取り扱います.Office est. 11/12/19. Our articles include essay, translation, study about literature, psychiatry(psychopathology), humanities and sometimes roofless vehicles.